HI u h~ K ii t. 1 dk H H E I» ^ h 11 HL^WI
LIBRARY OF THE
Accession April 34, 1928
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
Federally funded with LSTA funds through the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners
The Committee on Lectures and Publications has the honor
to present the fifth number of the Society's "Year Book" with
which is combined the Annual Report for the year 1927.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
March 5, 1928.
Table of Contents
Officers for 1928 9
Committees and Judges for 1928 ..... 11
Medals and Certificates Awarded in 1927 12
George Robert White Medal Award 23
Frederick S. Moseley's Estate . . . • . .26
Mrs. Frothingham's Rose Garden 30
Mrs. Frederick C. Shattuck's Garden .... 33
Winners in Poster Contest 34
Mrs. Sprague's Rock Garden 36
The Wardwell Garden 40
The Churchill Garden 42
Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips' Garden ..... 46
The Lure of Gardening as Expressed by Its Literature . 47
Garden Clubs and Societies of Massachusetts ... 61
Lawn Building and Seeding 66
The Late Professor Charles Sprague Sargent ... 69
Exhibitions for 1928 .72
Library Accessions .73
Periodicals Currently Received 78
Practical Rose Growing . . . . . . .82
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission . . 93
Reports of Officers and Committees for 1927 ... 97
Inaugural Meeting 97
The President's Letter 97
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Keport of the Secretary
Report of the Treasurer .....
Report of the Committee on Library .
Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publications
Report of the Exhibition Committee
Report of the Committee on Prizes
Committee on the Products of Children's Gardens
Membership in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 117
Members Whose Addresses are Unknown
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
Honorary Members . .
Form of Bequest ....
List of Illustrations
Professor Oakes Ames 8
Mr. Eobert C. Morse 10
Lambertus C. Bobbink 16
Among the Mountain Laurel on Mr. Moseley's Estate 25
Perennials in Mr. Moseley's Garden 27
Mrs. Louis A. Frothingham's Rose Garden ... 29
Standard Rose in Mrs. Frothingham's Garden . . 31
Pleached Alley on the Shattuck Estate .... 32
Path in Mrs. Isaac Sprague's Rock Garden ... 35
Mrs. Sprague's Garden, looking toward the house . 37
Enclosed Garden of Mrs. J. C. Wardwell .... 39
A View in Mrs. Churchill's Garden 41
Trilliums in Mrs. Churchill's Wild Garden .... 43
A Corner in the Garden of Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips 45
The late Prof. Charles Sprague Sargent .... 70
Rev. F. Page-Roberts Rose 84
Cypripedium Viridissimum Blenheim House, Exhibited
by Thomas M. Proctor at the Inaugural Meeting in
Exhibit of the Noanett Garden Club 101
Regal Lilies exhibited by Mrs. Bayard Thayer at the
Spring Flower Show 112
Exhibit of the Chestnut Hill Garden Club, Awarded the
Medal of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society 115
Professoe Oakes Ames
Newly Elected Vice-President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
OFFICERS FOR 1928
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, of Boston
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston
OAKES AMES, of North Easton
JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton
E. I. FARRINGTON, of Weymouth*
JOHN S. AMES, or North Easton
OAKES AMES, of North Easton
FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Boston
A. C. BURRAGE, of Boston
ROBERT CAMERON, of Ipswich
MISS MARIAN R. CASE, of Weston
HOWARD COONLEY, of Reabville
MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY, of Boston
WILLIAM 0. ENDICOTT, of Boston
MRS. HOMER GAGE, of Worcester
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Wellesley
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton
ARTHUR LYMAN, of Boston
ROBERT C. MORSE, of Hyde Park
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant
MRS. BAYARD THAYER, of South Lancaster
GEORGE C. THURLOW, of West Newbury
LORING UNDERWOOD, of Belmont
HENRY P. WALCOTT, of Cambribge
WILFRID WHEELER, of Concorb
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston
ERNEST H. WILSON, of Jamaica Plain
FRED A. WILSON, of Nahant
* Communications to the Secretary on the business of the Society, should, be
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston.
Mr. Robert C. Morse
Newly Elected Trustee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
COMMITTEES AND JUDGES FOR 1928
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES EDWIN S. WEBSTER
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES MRS. BAYARD THAYER
OAKES AMES EDWIN S. WEBSTER
ROBERT CAMERON, Chairman
ARTHUR LYMAN GEORGE C. THURLOW
Committee on Prizes
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman THOMAS ROLAND
Committee on Exhibitions
THOMAS ROLAND, Chairman
HARLAN P. KELSEY ERNEST H. WILSON
JAMES MARLBOROUGH WILFRID WHEELER
Committee on Library
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES MRS. BAYARD THAYER
Committee on Lectures and Publications
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman
HOWARD COONLEY LORING UNDERWOOD
Committee on Buildings
FRED A. WILSON, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES ROBERT C. MORSE
Committee on Gardens
MRS. HOMER GAGE, Chairman
WALTER HUNNEWELL MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY
MRS. BAYARD THAYER MRS. F. B. CROWNINSHIELD
Committee on G. R. White Medal of Honor
OAKES AMES, Chairman
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY
Committee on Children's Gardens
MISS MARIAN ROBY CASE, Chairman D. W. O'BRIEN
Judges of Plants and Flowers
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman
SAMUEL J. GODDARD DONALD McKENZIE
WILLIAM H. JUDD GEORGE F. STEWART
Judges of Fruits
JAMES METHVEN, Chairman
WALTER G. KENDALL ANDREW K. ROGERS
Judges of Vegetables
EDWARD PARKER, Chairman
RAY M. KOON PAUL P. MAILLARD
Medals and Certificates
The following is a list of Medals and Certificates awarded
by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1927 :
Greorge Robert White Medal of Honor
Jan. 10. Professor Liberty Hyde Bailey, for eminent serv-
ice in horticulture.
Oct. 28. Lambertus C. Bobbink, for skill in propagating
Thomas Roland Medal
Mar. 29. Thomas Roland, for skill in horticulture.
Mar. 30. Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Roses.
June 25. Miss Marian R. Case, for display of Delphiniums.
Aug. 20. A. L. Stephen, for the most meritorious exhibit in
Sept. 10. Mrs. Moses Taylor, for collection of fruit and
vegetables artistically displayed.
Oct. 28. Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for group of
Large Gold Medal
Mar. 30. Robert C. Morse, for group of Rhododendrons and
" 30. Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Roses.
" 30. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Orchids.
" 30. Edwin S. Webster, for group of flowering plants.
May Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster, for group of
foliage and flowering plants at the Chestnut
Hill Garden Club's exhibition.
June 7. Fitz Eugene Dixon, for a group of Orchids at the
Penn. Horticultural Society's exhibition.
Oct. 28. Albert C. Burrage, for a group of Orchids.
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 13
Oct. 28. Frederick S. Moseley, for an estate of superior
" 28. Dr. "Walter G. Kendall, for a comprehensive ex-
hibit of hardy grapes.
Nov. 10. Mrs. Marcus Loew, for the greatest number of
points at the Autumn Exhibition of the Hor-
ticultural Society of New York.
Exhibition Gold Medal
Albert C. Burrage, for display of Orchids.
Harold Patten, for artistic display of cut Carna-
Edwin S. Webster, for display of Orchid Plants.
Noanett Garden Club, for the most meritorious ex-
hibit among the garden clubs.
June 4. Miss Marian R. Case, for comprehensive display of
" 25. T. P. Donahue, for artistic display of herbaceous
Aug. 20. L. G. Rowe, for Gladioli display.
Sept. 10. The Seven Acres, for display of Dahlias.
Oct. 28. Bay State Nurseries, for collection of evergreen
" 28. Patten & Company, for display of single and Pom-
" 28. Thomas Roland, for display of Orchids.
" 28. Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for coniferous
and deciduous trees.
E. B. Dane, for display of Orchids.
Kelsey Highlands Nursery, for group of ever-
greens and hardy flowering plants.
William Sim, for artistic display of cut Carnations.
S. J. Goddard, for artistic display of cut Carna-
F. W. Hunnewell, for display of Orchid Plants.
J. T. Butterworth, for display of Orchid Plants.
Wm. Hannan & Son, for two specimen Ferns.
14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Mar. 30. Harvard Botanic Garden, for group of foliage and
" 30. Robert C. Morse, for pair of Laburnum Standards.
" 30. Robert C. Morse, for Rhododendron Pink Pearl.
" 30. Louis Vasseur, for group of flowering shrubs and
" 30. Joseph Breck & Sons, for display of Narcissus.
" 30. R. & J. Farquhar Co., for group of hardy evergreen
and flowering plants.
" 30. Walter S. Lenk, for Gardenias.
" 30. Noanett Garden Club, for display exhibit in life
scale representing a garden scene.
" 30. North Andover Garden Club, for an exhibit in life
scale representing an indoor scene.
June 4. T. F. Donahue, for comprehensive display of Iris.
4. Mr. J. Montgomery Sears, for Viscaria.
4. George N. Smith, for display of Iris and Lupins.
" 18. Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peonies.
" 18. F. H. Allison, for display of Peonies.
" 18. Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peony seed-
" 25. Moses Taylor, for collection of hardy Roses.
" 25. Stewart Duncan, for most effective display of
" 25. Louis Vasseur, for hardy herbaceous perennials.
" 25. Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Peonies.
June 25. Charles R. Dewey, for display of Peonies.
Aug. 20. North River Farms, for Gladioli display.
" 20. Joseph Breck & Sons, for group of Campanula
isophylla and Campanula isophylla alba.
" 27. Brockton School Gardens, for display of their
Sept. 10. J. K. Alexander, for display of Dahlias.
" 10. Stoughton Nurseries, for collection of Delphin-
" 10. Weston Nurseries, for hardy herbaceous peren-
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 15
Sept. 10. D. J. F. Sabin, for artistic display of Dahlias.
" 10. Charles Scott, for cultural skill in growing fruit
" 10. Thomas Murphy, for display of seedling Dahlias
" 10. Bay State Nurseries, for special display of hardy
" 10. Mrs. Moses Taylor, for collection of Tomatoes.
Oct. 28. Edwin S. Webster, for group of Chrysanthemum
28. Howard Coonley, for best plant of Emita Begonia.
28. "William H. Vanderbilt, for Chrysanthemums (25
28. New England Wild Flower Preservation Society,
for an educational display.
28. Harvard University Botanic Garden, for hardy
28. W. E. Lenk, for variety display of Roses, Gar-
denias, and Delphiniums.
28. Mrs. Louis A. Frothingham, for a Rose garden of
28. Mrs. Frederick Shattuck, for a garden of unusual
28. Mr. Louis Vasseur, for a collection of fruits.
White & Johnson Co., for artistic display of cut
Matthew P. Whittall Estate, for Mignonette in
Mrs. J. M. Sears, for cut Petunias.
Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall, for Verbena Standards.
Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for Lily of the Valley.
Robert C. Morse, for Rhododendron decorum.
William MacBean, for exhibit of Lilies and
Howard Coonley, for Schizanthus.
Mrs. Robert Morse (Noanett Garden Club) for
best six plants.
Lambertus C. Bobbink
Awarded the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 17
Mar. 30. Mrs. 0. M. Godfrey, (No. Andover Garden Club)
for best collection of flowering bulbs.
June 18. T. F. Donahue, for a display of Peonies arranged
" 18. T. F. Donahue, for three blooms of the new double
" 25. Wm. F. Dusseault, for collection of hardy Roses.
" 25. Henry L. F. Naber, for hardy herbaceous peren-
" 25. Shaylor & Allison, for display of Peonies.
Aug. 20. Jelle Roos, for a display of Gladioli.
" 20. Harvard Botanic Garden, for group of Statice and
" 20. Cherry Hill Nurseries, for display of Phlox.
" 20. William Edwin Clark, for four South African
species and collection of Primulinus Gladi-
" 20. Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for group of
Sept. 10. "White & Johnson Co., for hardy herbaceous peren-
" 10. Lily Gardens, for display of Lilium speciosum
" 10. E. H. Wetterlow & Son, for display of seedling
" 10. I. A. Racz, for Figs and Sedum.
Oct. 28. Mrs. Homer Gage, for group of Chrysanthemum
" 28. Mrs. Moses Taylor, for Chrysanthemums, (25 cut
" 28. White & Johnson Co., for Japanese Garden.
" 28. Penn, the Florist, for table display.
" 28. Mrs. Isaac Sprague, for a rock garden of superior
" 28. Mrs. J. O. Wardwell, for a walled garden of supe-
18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Bronze Medals for Children's Gardens
Alton E. Hodges, Jamaica Plain High School
Oswald Tippo, Jamaica Plain High School
Joseph G. O'Mara, Jamaica Plain High School
E. Byam Gee, Jamaica Plain High School
John H. Keenan, Jamaica Plain High School
Karl 0. Anderson, Jamaica Plain High School
Richard M. Hynes, Jamaica Plain High School
Ruth Atkins, Martin gehool Garden
Angelo Belmonte, North End Garden
Mary "W. DeCosta, Deerfield St. Garden
Forrest Hartin, Stow
Clifford Bowles, Lincoln
Adams Zabierek, Chelmsford Ctr.
Adelard Poirier, No. Billerica
Eugenia Caragianis, Dracut
Lucy Mignosa, Waltham
George Grafton, Stoneham
Guido Antognori, Concord
Generino Luongo, Lexington
Tony Franciose, Natick
Elmer Kimball, Framingham
Carlton H. Beverly, Ayer
Elfriede Hollenback, Roslindale
Luigi Bertucci, South Boston
Edward Webster, Roslindale
Joseph Geary, Dorchester
Wesley Snow Faulk, Brockton
Ervin N. Snow, Brockton
Joseph O'Brien, Brockton
Joseph Driscoll, Brockton
Margaret Rush, Roxbury
Antoinette Bontempo, Brighton
Ralph French, West Roxbury
John Gaquin, Henry L. Pierce School
Theodore Nelson, Florence Nightingale School
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 19
First Class Certificate of Merit
Jan. 10. Cypripedium Dixon Thorpe, exhibited by Albert
" 10. Cypripedium T. M. Ogilvie, The Premier, exhib-
ited by T. E. Proctor.
Oct. 28. Laeliocattleya Euclid, exhibited by Albert C.
Award of Merit
Jan. 10. Cypripedium Rheims, exhibited by E. B. Dane.
" 10. Brassocattleya Miranda Lemoniana, exhibited by
E. B. Dane.
" 10. Primula Sutton's Coral Pink, exhibited by Howard
" 10. Cypripedium Major Hanbury Carlyle, exhibited
by A. C. Burrage.
" 10. Cypripedium Alcibiades nobilis illustris, exhib-
ited by A. C. Burrage.
" 10. Cypripedium Olympus, The Chairman, exhibited
by Albert C. Burrage.
" 10. Lycastle Tunstillii, exhibited by Albert C. Bur-
" 10. Cypripedium viridissimum Blenheim House, ex-
hibited by Albert C. Burrage.
Mar. 30. Cypripedium Diana aurea, exhibited by Joseph
" 30. Brassocattleya, Rex Illuminator, exhibited by
Edwin S. Webster.
" 30. Odontoglossum Armainvillierense, Johnsoni, exhib-
ited by Albert C. Burrage.
" 30. Display exhibit in life scale representing a garden
scene, exhibited by the Milton Garden Club.
June 4. Orchid Coelogyne Burfordiense, exhibited by F.
4. Peony Avant Garde, exhibited by the Cherry Hill
4. Peony Le Printemps, exhibited by the Cherry Hill
20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
June 4. Peony officinalis varieties, exhibited by the Cherry
4. Iris Grace Sturtevant, exhibited by the Glenwood
4. Iris Palmyra seedling, exhibited by A. J. Bliss.
" 18. Peony Jubilee, exhibited by T. P. Donahue.
" 18. Peony La Lorraine, exhibited by T. F. Donahue.
" 18. Lilium Batemanniae, exhibited by Wm. N. Craig.
" 25. Rose Angele Pernet, exhibited by Moses Taylor.
Aug. 20. Gladiolus Saundersii, exhibited by Wm. Edwin
Oct. 28. Cattleya Woltersiana, exhibited by Albert C.
" 28. Cypripedium Our Prince, exhibited by Thomas
u 28. Cypripedium nitens leanum vivicans, exhibited by
" 28. Chrysanthemum Sarah Fisher, vase of, exhibited
by Patten & Co.
Vote of Commendation
Jan. 10. . Schizanthus, exhibited by Howard Coonley.
" 10. Lycaste Denningiana, exhibited by Albert C.
Mar. 30. Primula malacoides, exhibited by Eric Wetterlow.
" 30. Beaumontia grandiflora, exhibited by Mrs. J. M.
" 30. Azalea Kirin, specimen exhibited by Mrs. R. M.
June 4. Peony May Flower, exhibited by Cherry Hill
" 25. Delphinium Seedlings, exhibited by Wm. Brewsher.
" 25. Sweet Peas, display of, exhibited by Stewart
" 25. Educational exhibit of garden peas on the vine,
exhibited by the Market Garden Field Sta-
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 21
George Stewart, for Cattleya Percivalliana.
T. E. Proctor, for Cypripedium insigne superba
T. E. Proctor, for Cypripedium insigne Hareford
Wm. Hannan & Son, for two specimen Perns.
Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall, for specimen plant single
Walter S. Lenk, for Gardenias.
F. W. Hunnewell, for specimen Cymbidium.
Butterworth's, for collection of Cypripediums.
Oct. 28. Mrs. George B. Churchill, for a garden of superior
" 28. Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips, for a home garden of
Vote of Thanks
June 4. Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for Azaleas and
4. Edwin S. "Webster, for Lantanas.
" 25. Market Garden Field Station, for two varieties of
Aug. 20. George N. Smith, for table and basket of Gladioli.
" 20. Joseph Breck & Sons, for table of Gladioli.
20. F. P. Webber, for seedling Dahlia Autumnal.
Oct. 20. W. W. Edgar Co., for table display.
28. Framingham Nurseries for small group of ever-
28. Walter E. Lenk, for vase of Physalis Franchetii.
28. F. W. Holbrow, for vase of Bouvardia Humboltii.
" 28. I.-A.Racz, for Figs in tubs.
Horticultural Society of New York Cold Medal
Mar. 30. Thomas Eoland, for most original and effective
exhibit in the show. (Orchid group.)
22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Gold Medal
Mar. 30. Chestnut Hill Garden Club, for best arranged
group of plants in the show.
Silver Medal of the American Peony Society
June 18. Cherry Hill Nurseries, for the best collection of
Chestnut Hill Garden Club Medal
Mar. 30. Mrs. Homer Gage, for bulb garden.
Special Silver Plate
Mar. 30. Howard Coonley, for group of annuals.
" 30. Mrs. Homer Gage, for bulb garden.
" 30. Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for group of Lilies.
" 30. Howard Coonley, for special group of plants.
" 30. Albert C. Burrage, for group of Phalaenopsis.
" 30. Thomas Roland, for group of Cypripediums.
William B. H. Dowse Trophy Cup
Aug. 20. Oakland Farm, for a collection of vegetables.
George Robert White Medal Award
It was announced by the Trustees in March, 1927, that the
George Robert White Medal of Honor had been awarded to Dr.
Liberty Hyde Bailey, of Ithaca, N. Y. This award was made
on the recommendation of a special committee, of which Pro-
fessor C. S. Sargent was chairman. The award was made
to Dr. Bailey for his remarkable achievements in horticul-
ture, and especially for his work as an educator, author and
editor. Dr. Bailey's Cyclopaedia of Horticulture is one of
the most important horticultural works ever produced in this
country. In addition, he has edited the Cyclopaedia of Ameri-
can Agriculture, and has written and edited many other
books and manuals.
Dr. Bailey was born in South Haven, Mich., in 1858. After
graduating from the Michigan Agricultural College in 1882,
he became a professor of horticulture and landscape garden-
ing. Later he was appointed to the chair of Experimental Hor-
ticulture at Cornell University, where he became the dean of
the College of Agriculture and director of the Experiment
Station. He retired in 1913, and has spent his time since in
travel, lecturing and writing.
The George Robert White Medal is generally accepted as
the highest horticultural award in America. It is given once
a year from a fund established by the man whose name it
bears, and who in many ways has been one of Boston's greatest
The medal, designed by John Flanagan, is of coin gold and
weighs eight and a half ounces. It has been awarded each
year since its establishment, as follows:
1909. Prof. Charles S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum,
Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1910. Jackson Thornton Dawson, well known and accomplished
plantsman of the Arnold Arboretum.
1911. Victor Lemoine of Nancy, France, originator of many of the
popular varieties of flowering plants to be found in the
gardens of today.
1912. Michael H. Walsh, Rose specialist of Woods Hole, Mass.,
originator of the Lady Gay Rose and many other popular
24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1913. The Park Commission op the City op Rochester,, N. Y., in
recognition of its tasteful work in landscape planting.
1914. Sir. Harry James Veitch of London, England, seedsman,
nurseryman, introducer and propagator of many desirable
ornamental garden plants.
1915. Ernest Henry Wilson of Boston, for his botanical and hor-
ticultural work in China and Japan, and the discovery of
many new varieties of flowering plants, shrubs and trees.
1916. William Robinson of London, England, for his educational
work in horticultural literature.
1917. Niels Ebbesen Hansen of Brookings, S. D., for the intro-
duction of new varieties of plants and fruits in the North-
1918. Dr. Walter Van Fleet of Washington, D. C, for the pro-
duction of new varieties of Roses.
1919. Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie v Paris, France, for the introduc-
tion of new varieties of plants and vegetables.
1920. George Forrest of England, for his work in the introduction
of garden plants from China.
1921. Mrs. Louisa Yeomans-King of Alma, Mich., for her work in
1922. Albert C. Burrage of Boston, for his work in advancing
interest in horticulture.
1923. John McLaren of San Francisco, for his work in the develop-
ment of horticulture on the Pacific Coast.
1924. J. Pernet-Ducher, Venissieux-Les-Lyons, France, Rosarian,
for eminent service in horticulture, especially in the pro-
duction of new Rose varieties.
1925. Prop. U. P. Hedrick of Geneva, N. Y., for his work in orig-
inating new varieties of fruits.
1926. Pierre S. duPont of Wilmington, Del., for his work in
popularizing horticulture and for the establishment of a
great winter garden at Longwood, Pa.
1927. Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Ithica, N. Y., for his work in
promoting horticultural education and for his books.
Frederick S. Moseley's Estate
The estate to which the Massachusetts Horticultural So-
ciety's large gold medal was awarded iu 1927, that of Mr.
Frederick S-. Moseley of Newbury port, known as Maudesleight
Farm, has many interesting features, but is notable particu-
larly for its Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia). It is
doubtful if there is another estate in New England which
has so many large plants.
There are 1,100 acres in the estate, which is situated on the
bank of the Merrimac River, and the Kalmias cover about ten
acres, most of them being grown among Pine trees on rolling
land, creating a very picturesque appearance. There are
thousands of Kalmia plants, some of them 10 to 12 feet high.
They represent a natural growth, and have been given the
most expert care and are in a most nourishing condition.
Nearer the entrance to the estate are several flower gardens,
a fine collection of lilacs, a vegetable garden and a fruit gar-
den, the latter containing many trained trees.
One particularly interesting feature in connection with the
lilac planting is the use of Pachysandra terminalis as a ground
cover. This forms a solid mat, completely covering the
ground under the plants.
When the visitor reaches the Italian garden, his attention
is immediately attracted by the beautiful hedge which sur-
rounds it, its soft green being very lovely. This hedge is
formed of English Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) which,
although it has been growing many years, is in perfect condi-
tion. In spite of the fact that it makes a charming hedge, this
hawthorn is too seldom used for this purpose in this country.
The beds in the garden are surrounded by low box edgings,
which are in excellent condition, and add an old-fashioned
touch to the grounds.
The ground at the side of the flower garden drops abruptly
several feet, being sustained by a brick wall with a stone cop-
ing. The beds at the base of this wall are planted with roses
in variety which produce a succession of flowers all summer.
The rose beds are edged with sweet alyssum.
At the rear of the garden and dividing it from the green-
28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
house area, one finds a tall hedge of Laurel-leaf willow (Salix
The vegetable garden is surrounded by a hedge of Norway
spruce from nine feet to 18 feet high, kept smooth and even
by constant shearing.
From the vegetable garden one passes along a path bordered
on each side by herbaceous plants massed against a spruce
hedge nine feet high. 'This herbaceous border with its spruce
background is 400 feet long, and opens upon the fruit gardens
where the walks are bordered by trees trained as cordons and
espaliers on trellises.
Ait the end of the long walk one passes through a planting
of Rhododendron maximum with specimens 10 feet to 12 feet
in height. Then the visitor enters a beech groove and later
may walk for miles on roads and paths cut through pine and
oak woods, crossing the lake by a three-arch bridge and thus
reaching Laurel Hill, from which point one gets a wonderful
view of the Merrimac River, and in the distance the Atlantic
Ocean. Mr. Moseley's love for trees is evidenced on every
hand. There are thousands of specimens of different kinds, all
of which show the most careful handling. It is the trees and
the laurel that give the estate its fascinating qualities, al-
though the other features are not to be overlooked. The whole
estate is kept in perfect condition under the direction of
Charles Gattrell, the very efficient superintendent.
Mrs. Frothingham's Rose Garden
The North Easton rose garden of Mrs. Louis A. Frothing-
ham, awarded a silver medal, is considered one of the finest 0:1
the Atlantic coast. The garden is really divided into three sec-
tions. The upper section is 36 x 48 feet, the middle section
44 x 64 feet and the lower section 64 x 112 feet.
Mrs. Frothingham had done some experimental work with
roses for several years before the present garden was con-
structed. Then she placed the whole matter of preparing and
planting the ground into the hands of Mrs. Harriet Foote.
Mrs. Foote selected the roses and supervised the planting,
but the design of the garden was made by Mr. Herbert J.
Kellaway, landscape architect, of Boston, and is very charm-
ing. The mansion, which sets well back from, the road, is
surrounded by trees and lawns. A vista has been cut through
a woody growth, with the Italian summer house at the further
end. This structure was found in Italy by Mrs. Frothing-
ham and brought over some years ago. It marks a right-angle
turn in the walk leading to the rose garden. The moment that
this turn is made the visitor finds himself looking down upon
a series of terraces with roses blooming on every side, and a
much larger summer house facing a round pool, which is 23
feet in diameter with an 18-inch curb. This pool contains a
fountain and is surrounded by baby rambler roses, making
a floral border which keeps its charm throughout the summer.
The lower garden is circular, following the lines of the pool.
This latter garden is partly surrounded by a lattice work on
which climbing roses have been trained. The walks are circu-
lar and are lined with tree roses.
Standard Rose in Mrs. Frothingham's Garden
Mrs. Frederick C. Shattuck's Garden
The Brookline garden of Mrs. Frederick C. Shattuck, wife
of Dr. Shattuck, who was awarded a silver medal, is one of
the most historic gardens in Greater Boston. It is partially
surrounded by a very high brick wall, and from its general
appearance might well be located in England. It contains
one of the very few pleached alleys to be found in America.
Col. Thomas H. Perkins bought the estate in 1800, and
soon built a greenhouse. The brick wall was built in 1836,
and soon after five additional greenhouses were constructed.
Three of these greenhouses were removed later, but the others
still stand and are filled with tender plants of enormous size
and great age. Among them are several rubber trees of en-
In 1885 the place passed into the hands of Mrs. Henry Lee,
after which many changes were made. It was at this time that
the pleached alley was planted. This alley is 150 feet long,
and is made of hornbeam, the trees being trained over iron
supports and wires, although they are so thoroughly inter-
laced now that they would stand without any support.
On the death of Mrs. Lee in 1910, the place was taken
over by Mrs. Shattuck, who with her husband, takes great
pride in it and maintains it in excellent condition.
Overlooking the garden is an elevated summer house, while
at the other end stands a brick pergola covered with grape
vines from which one looks down a long alley lined with
specimens of Boxwood. It would be hard to find another
garden in the northern states containing Box of such enormous
proportions, the plants standing far above the average man's
head, and with hardly a blemish. Placed between them are
specimen altheas which have also grown to great size.
About the grounds are many very large and noble trees
which have been standing for half a century or over, and
among the plants in the greenhouses are some very old roses, in-
cluding Teas, Cherokees and Banksianas. For years a feature
of the place was a magnificent Himalayan rhododendron but
this plant died about 1915. It is believed that Col. Perkins
34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
planted many of the ornamental and fruit trees on the place
soon after he moved to Brookline early in the last century.
The success with which they have been grown is due largely
to the natural shelter which the estate enjoys and also to the
protection and warmth supplied by the high brick wall.
Winners in Poster Contest
In preparation for the 1927 Spring Show, prizes were
offered for the best posters, and the winners were as follows :
First, Beulah Locke Sherburne,- Lexington.
Second, Elinor Wockstrom, 126 Massachusetts Ave.,
Boston; Scott Carbee School.
Third, Gertrude Koch, 37 Gorham Ave., Brookline.
Fourth, Christine Lane, School of the Museum of
Fifth, Helen Travis, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Bos-
ton; Scott Carbee School.
Sixth, Nell Guild Moses, 148 Lexington Ave., Cam-
It was decided to use the first prize poster in connection
with the 1928 Spring Exhibition.
Path in Mrs. Isaac Spr ague's Bock Garden
Mrs. Sprague's Rock Garden
Mrs. Isaac Sprague's rock garden at Wellesley Hills, Mass.,
which has been given a silver medal by the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society, is among the most interesting in the
state. The history of this garden may be best expressed by
the owner's terse statement — "It just grew." "Without any
formal plan in mind, it was begun some 18 years ago in a very
modest way, the owner merely taking a few yards of sunny
slope and planting the seeds of some favorite alpine flowers.
The location proved favorable, the plants thrived (most of
them), the area was gradually enlarged, new plants were se-
cured, either as gifts from friends or transplanted from New
Hampshire woods or raised from seed purchased in Europe,
and eventually the garden assumed its present shape.
It lies on the southern slope of a knoll, the summit of which
is occupied by the family residence, and forms a very inti-
mate feature of the home life. A few steps from the front
porch, and you are in the garden. The heart of this knoll, by
the way, is a ledge of grey schistose rock which disintegrates
quite readily into small angular particles.
Mrs. Sprague discovered quite early that an important ele-
ment in her success with rock-loving plants was this disin-
tegrated rock, for it formed an ideal substratum for the gar-
den, giving perfect drainage, and the roots of the growing
plants easily find their way down through its interstices.
The surface of the slope, naturally, had to be prepared
for the special purposes of a rock garden, and numerous
weathered boulders, "roundheads," and angular rocks of dif-
ferent sorts were gathered from the farm and placed in suit-
able positions. This task was so happily accomplished that a
visitor from a well-known school of landscape architecture
recently congratulated Mrs. Sprague on her good fortune in
having her rock garden made for her by Nature itself.
No limestone was found, however, and in the case of plants
which have a craving for lime this has to be worked into the
soil. A valuable addition was made to the natural soil of the
slope from the horse corral, where a large quantity of peat
had been placed and trodden under the horses' feet until it
became as fine as dust and also acquired a considerable ele~
Mrs. Sprague's Garden Looking Toward the House
38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
ment of stable manure. Of course, also, a needful amount of
sand and grit was provided for those alpines which object to
being fed too highly. In the winter season the garden lies
under a covering of fallen leaves held down by small inter-
lacing pine boughs.
With respect to the plant material in the garden, Mrs.
Sprague secures her seeds and bulbs from a great variety of
sources — England, France, the Swiss Alps, the Tyrol, Cali-
fornia, Colorado, and the Southern Appalachians. Last sum-
mer she had over 360 different species of rock plants under
cultivation, including many anemones, saxifrages, colum-
bines, campanulas, wild tulips, sedums, violas, narcissus, and
primulas, with representative plants of meconopsis, daphne,
eidelweiss, adonis, iris, etc. Her collection of primroses in par-
ticularly tine, especially the Jekyll hybrids, and when in full
bloom the sight is worth going many miles to see. Among the
native American plants she has been notably fortunate with
galax, shortia and Iris cristata from the South, camassia, ery-
thronium species, and pentstemons from California, lewisias,
dodecatheons, and polemoniums from Colorado, nierember-
gia from South America, besides various familiar New Eng-
land plants like bloodroot, hepatica, arbutus, trilliums, car-
dinal flower, etc. Many of the plants seed themselves, and a
few (even those of foreign importation) actually run riot.
Myosotis alpestris, for example, is almost a pest.
It should be said that the real secret of all this successful
and charming display of rock-loving plants lies in the devo-
tion and personal affection of the owner. The garden is not
a show-place ; neither is it a gathering of merely botanical
specimens. It is the product of a great deal of thought and
study and effort on the part of the owner, who has had from
the beginning a genuine love for the flowers themselves.
The Wardwell Garden
The garden of Mrs. J. Otis Wardwell of Haverhill, whose
garden was given a silver medal in 1927, is about one hundred
feet square and is enclosed by a brick wall. It is the type of
garden frequently seen in the small cities and towns of Eng-
land. It is formal in design but delightfully informal in feel-
ing and its enclosure gives it privacy, making it a veritable
out-door living-room. To enter the garden from the house
one descends from a breakfast-room, the tiled floor of which
is a few feet above the level of the ground. In the center of
the garden is a circular pool. On axis with it and the break-
fast room at the further end of the garden, there is a tiled
roof tea-house on a brick terrace. It is the type of garden that
a visitor would say reflects the individual care and good taste
of its owner. A pergola of brick columns and rough hewn
wood, at one side, leads to a brick seat incorporated with the
wall. Over this seat, in a niche in the wall, is a carved wooden
figure of St. Francis. The garden was built about 15 years ago
but already time has given it a mellowness that makes it
seem much older, and you recall the sentiment expressed by
Cardinal Newman when he said: "By a garden is meant
mystically, a place of spiritual repose, stillness, peace, re-
freshment and delight." The garden was designed by Loring
Underwood, landscape architect, of Boston'.
The Churchill Garden
Formerly there was a large meadow in Amherst, Mass.,
with a hedge 500 feet long, of tall hemlocks and spruces
on the east, and in the meadow a great oak and a century-
old maple. Old apple trees were close to the house, another
house and barn were at the west, and all the land sloped
deeply to a wooded brook.
In 1907 Olmstead Brothers transformed this into a hand-
some estate, and this became the home of the late Congress-
man George B. Churchill and Mrs. Churchill. Now it has
been awarded the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's garden
certificate. The estate had been called "The Dell," from its
ravine and brook. The landscape architects graded the meadow
to a natural slope, cutting most of the orchard, but leaving
three trees as beautiful as choicer varieties, as their branches
hang to the ground.
Above this sloping lawn, stepping-stones lead from the
house terrace to a winding path around the oak and the path
is bordered by a hedge of intermingled mockoranges, lilacs,
and deutzias. Opposite are Viburnum tomentosa and Mugho-
pines under a hickory where Eiionymus radicans is a ground
cover and creeps up the tree trunk.
At the curve of the path is a heavy planting of Viburnum
opulus, witch-hazel, red-buds, privets and hemlocks with an
edging of violets and white foxgloves in the green, with Rhus-
aromatica and yews by the oak.
As the path reaches the garden under an old cherry, a
clipped hedge of privet shuts in the path between three low
steps leading from two paths from the house with a green
lawn between, on which stands a spreading maple. From
the main path central steps lead to a crushed stone path from
which three steps lead to the upper garden. Each side the
central stone steps are stones banked to form long rockeries
where alpine plants grow, with sedums, low perennials, scat-
tering bulbs and ferns.
The garden is divided by crushed stone walks into three
parts. In the center is a sundial planted around with peonies,
white phlox and a clipped edge of myrtle . Near two seats set
in recesses from the long walk, is formal yucca ; the walks are
44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
edged with stone and the garden is bordered on three sides by
a privet hedge.
The north section is in blue, yellow, and some white. Hu-
gonis roses in the center bloom above pale yellow irises (flav-
escens), and the low, blue polemonium. At the south double
arabis, white Phlox subulata, grass pinks, dicentra and heu-
chera (alum root) edge the borders. These borders feather
into pink spiraea and then change to pink and white, canter-
berry bells and pyrethrum, in shades of pink, with sedum and
the dicentra, a fine combination of foliage. Spring bulbs fill
the garden — scillas and chionodoxas run wild. Perennials are
carefully placed as to height and color and time of blooming.
Leading from outside the garden, a descending path bor-
dered with Christmas ferns, baneberries and violets ends in a
steep flight of wooden steps to the lowest path of all by the
brook — a ravine added a few years ago to the three acres
landscaped by Olmstead. A grove of tall locust trees makes
this ravine dark and cool.
A lower garden near the long hedge of hemlocks, framed
by a lilac hedge and edged by Lombardy poplars, has a paved
pergola for roses.
It has been the desire of the owners to have native flowers
and plants only, but a hartstongue fern lives with foam-
flower, forget-me-nots, bloodroot, trilliums, hepatica, lilies,
and in early spring before the violets bloom everywhere, stray-
ing scillas and chionodoxas make blue the plants between.
Bearberry in trailing masses is found near by, and as a sur-
prise in sandy soil there are birdsfoot violets.
Clematis paniculata covers the trunk of an old cherry tree
near a Wilson cherry — and the clematis runs riot over the
terrace coping with Euonymus alatus, pearlbush, bay, yellow-
root below it.
Carnelian cherries bloom early, shrubbery bordering the
fifty-foot walk from house to garden, with a thick blue edg-
ing of chionodoxas below, a joyful spring opening.
Last year Azalea arborescens and Azalea Vaseyi were placed
to edge shrubbery borders near the house. Euonymus radicans
covers the house on the north side above a planting of laurel,
leucothoe, andromeda and maidenhair fern, and the taller
royal and cinnamon ferns with jack-in-the-pulpit stray in be-
hind a box tree eight feet tall at the welcoming door.
Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips' Garden
The garden of Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips, 7 Sheridan Road,
Swampscott, Mass., which was awarded a garden certificate
in 1927, demonstrates what can be done to beautify a difficult
situation and change a "back yard" into a restful garden.
Pour years ago this bit of land 50' x 50' was added to the
house-lot making it now about 120 feet deep. A large elm
(one limb of which extends 50 feet over this garden) out-
croppings of red ledge (which project about 33 feet from
left boundary line) and poor soil covered with witch grass
were the assets and liabilities with which Mrs. Phillips started
her garden, which she designed and developed alone.
The present entrance is through this original garden ; one
passes borders informally -planted at the sides of the walk
which leads one to a formal lawn with borders at the right
and rock gardens and a ledge at the left. The ledge is about
irve feet high at the back and the effect is heightened by roses
climbing over the wire fence on the boundary line. This
little hill is reached by two sets of stone steps, with alpines
growing between the stones, and on the hill are more rocks,
little evergreens and odd plants. Sempervivums, thyme,
polemoniums sedums, etc., are tucked into the cracks in the
rocks and in odd places. This is not over-done but made to
look natural. Named varieties of tulips are planted through
the whole garden in small clumps. These are labeled true to
name and variety, as are also the many perennials found
here. There is also a collection of about 125 varieties of the
better Irises from the early pumilas to the late blooming Am-
bassadeur among the bearded irises and a few Siberian and
Japanese kinds. There are astilbes, heucheras, glorious del-
phiniums, lilies, veronicas and many other perennials which
bloom in succession until frost claims the last Michaelmas
Daisies and chrysanthemums.
Visitors speak enthusiastically of the arrangement of the
garden as regards the color and the forms of the plants and
succession of bloom, describing it as glorious in spring, rest-
ful in summer and an inspiration and source of information
at all times.
The Lure of Gardening as Expressed by
Russell Conwell in his lecture "Acres of Diamonds" empha-
sized most forcefully the old truth that a man may be in pos-
session of great riches but if he is unaware of the fact they are
to him as though they were not.
Our libraries are storehouses of untold treasures of knowl-
edge, romance, wit and instruction, but if we do not know of
their existence nor how to use them their contents are to us
sealed and valueless. They might as well be like the beautiful
editions a rich man bought to fill his library, cut them in two
to fit his narrow shelves, locked the doors of his book-cases
and threw away the key.
Since God planted the Garden of Eden (Garden of delight
and pleasure) with all manner of trees, gardens and trees
have continued to be a delight and pleasure and one of the
absorbing interests of mankind. Rich and poor alike have
revelled in their wonder and beauties, and through them have
come close to nature and to nature's God. Many gardens
have been famous in history such as the Hanging Gardens
of Babylon constructed by Nebuchadnezzar (604-561 B. C.)
which were one of the seven wonders of the world, the garden
of Solomon, celebrated in song (993-953 B. C.) and that of
Theophrastus (about 300 B. C). With the love of gardens
and gardening and of the noblest of all growing plants, the
tree, has grown up an immense literature.
So far as possible this literature has been gathered into
two important libraries in the City of Boston, each pre-
eminent in its line, the Library of the Massachusetts Horti-
cultural Society, "believed to be the oldest, most complete and
best organized strictly horticultural library in the world,"
and the Arnold Arboretum Library, unique in its field, the
largest library in the world devoted to woody plants. These
two libraries may be considered as sister libraries, working
together for the accumulation of valuable material. While
many of the books in one library are duplicated in the other
*A lecture by Miss Ethelyn M. Tucker, Librarian of the Arnold Arboretum, be-
fore the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, April 1, 1927.
48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
the guiding principle is that the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society shall acquire all books on gardening (horticulture),
and the Arnold Arboretum all books on dendrology. The
libraries thus complement one another and make for a more
complete collection along two distinct lines than would other-
wise have been possible.
For a working library all modern writings are essential
and many old ones which form the basis of the present knowl-
edge of botany and gardening in their various branches, these
the libraries have endeavored to bring together.
Periodicals form one of the most important divisions of
both libraries but the oldest American horticultural maga-
zine known to me, The Floral Magazine and Botanical Re-
pository published by D. and C. Landreth in Philadelphia,
1832-34, is, curiously enough, so far as I know not to be found
in the Horticultural Library but it is in the Library of the
Arnold Arboretum. It comprises only five parts containing
31 finely colored plates, an advanced work for that period.
The advertisement modestly states that "Science has of late
made rapid strides, and they who presume to court the public
gaze, are expected to present something worthy of the age. It
is, therefore, not without some trepidation, that the pub-
lishers venture to lay its pages open for inspection. And lest
expectations should have been created that may not be real-
ized, they beg leave to state, that pretensions are not made
to more than a very moderate share of scientific knowledge ;
and that the present publication is rather intended to direct
the mind to the beauty and importance of the vegetable
kingdom, than to solve abstruse problems, or to decide on
speculative theories in botany."
The Gardeners' Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser, of
which Thomas Meehan was sole editor during the thirty years
of its existence, is a magazine rich in valuable horticultural
information and advice. This set is in both the Horticultural
Library and the Library of the Arnold Arboretum. One of
the most conscientious and accomplished of American horti-
culturists, Mr. Meehan, had also a keen sense of humor as
shown in his note : "The description of flowers when associated
with the names they bear often suggest the ludicrous. In
looking over the lists of our florists, for instance, we find
THE LURE OF GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 49
'Lord Derby' described as having an orange crimson month,
'Lord Raglan' has 'a fine eye, but rather loose habits' ; 'Earl
of Shaftesbury, a fine flower,' but 'shows the whites of the
eyes'; 'Princess Matilda' has a rosy blush, and is very free;
'Mrs. Church has a great constancy, and may be depended
on' ; and so on through the catalogue."
A complete file of the Gardeners' Magazine, London 1826-
43, is in both the Horticultural Library and the Aboretum
Library, appearing first in the Horticultural Library's cata-
logue of 1867.
Of extraordinary record is Curtis' Botanical Magazine,
started in 1787, which through its 139 years has enjoyed un-
interrupted success. It has unerringly reflected the changes
in fashions and faithfully portrayed the forms and colors of
plants, almost without exception of those under cultivation.
It might well be called the plants' Hall of Fame. In volume
1 of the Arboretum copy is a letter from Jacob Bigelow under
date of Jan. 1, 1861, presenting to Francis Parkman the first
53 volumes. In it he says "The work was begun seventy years
ago when the art of paper making was not so good as it is
now. The work is now out of print."
Humphrey Marshall's "Arbustrum (sic) americanum,"
1785, the first book on American trees by an American, Park-
inson's "Paradisi in Sole," (a play upon the author's name
which may be translated "Of park-in-sun"), 1629, Fuch's "De
historia stirpium," 1542, rare and valuable for its wood en-
gravings which were many times reproduced in the works of
later authors, and "Ortus sanitatis" (Garden of health) 1517,
are among the many works to be found in both libraries.
The study of botany and horticulture began with the search
for remedies for man's ills so that the early herbals deal with
plants not as botanical treatises but for their value as medi-
cine, and gardening books with the cultivation of medicinal
In the preface of "Gart der gesuntheit" (the German Ortus
sanitatis) 1485, we find a quaint reference to the virtues of
plants in restoring lost health or temperament : "Many a time
and oft have I contemplated inwardly the wondrous works of
the Creator of the universe : how in the beginning He formed
the heavens and adorned them with goodly, shining stars, to
50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
which He gave power and might to influence everything under
heaven. Also how He afterwards formed the four elements:
fire, hot and dry — air, hot and moist — water, cold and
moist — earth, dry and cold — and gave to each a nature
of its own; and how after this the same Great Master
of Nature made and formed herbs of many sorts and
animals of all kinds, and last of all Man, the noblest of
all created things. ... It is also to be noted that the
four natures in question are also mixed and blended in the
human body in a measure and temperament suitable to the life
and nature of man. While man keeps within this measure,
proportion or temperament, he is strong and healthy, but as
soon as he steps or falls beyond the temperament or measure
of the four natures he falls of necessity into sickness, and
draws nigh unto death. . . . While considering these mat-
ters, I also remember how the Creator of Nature, Who has
placed us amid such dangers, has mercifully provided us with
a remedy, that is with all kinds of herbs, animals and other
created things to which He has given power and might to re-
store, produce, give and temper the four natures mentioned
above. One is heating, another is cooling, each after the
degree of its nature and complexion."
The chief interest in these books centres in their rarity,
beauty or curiosity and the pursuit of them is a fascinating
occupation. By the magic of Aladdin's lamp we may be
transported back through the centuries and look in imagination
upon the monks in their dusty cells, by the aid of a dim light
working laboriously over their parchments, those precious
manuscripts which were the originals of our earliest printed
books. With infinite care each letter is made, and the beautiful
colors, blue, red, purple, green and gold laid on the illumin-
ated initials so prized by us to-day. One book perhaps the
work of a life time. What we have gained in numbers to-day
we have lost in artistic beauty and the very human touch.
Mrs. Agnes Arber in her "Herbals, their origin and evolu-
lution," and Eleanour Sinclair Rohde in "The old english
herbals" weave into delightful story form the history of
these books and through them of the history of botany and of
"As late as the 16th century plants were looked upon purely
THE LURE OF GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 51
from a utilitarian point of view not only by the masses but
by very many professed scholars." Fuchs' indignation at
the ignorance of herbs displayed even by medical men gives
rise to his outburst on the subject in the preface to his "De
historia stirpium." "But, by Immortal God, is it to be won-
dered at that kings and princes do not at all regard the pursuit
of the investigation of plants, when even the physicians of
our time so shrink from it that it is scarcely possible to find
one among a hundred who has an accurate knowledge of even
so many as a few plants V Much mysticism is mingled with
the material use of herbs and we may believe that quack
physicians flourished even at that early date. If not beauty
parlors at least beauty receipts were sought and given. "For
sunburn boil in butter tender ivy twigs, smear therewith."
"That all the body may be of a clean and glad and bright hue,
take oil and dregs of old wine equally much, put them into a
mortar, mingle well together and smear the body with this in
the sun." Two prescriptions are given for hair which is too
thick — "In order that the hair may not wax, take emmets'
eggs, rub them up, smudge on the place, never will hair come
up there." Again, "If hair be too thick, take a swallow, burn
it to ashes under a tile and have the ashes shed on." "For
mistiness of eyes, many men least their eyes should suffer the
disease, look into cold water and then are able to see far."
"The analogy existing between the vegetable and animal
worlds, and the resemblances between human and tree life
have been observed from the most remote periods," and have
given rise to the doctrine of signatures, brought to its highest
development by the Swiss alchemist Bombastus Paracelsus
(1493-1541). This doctrine of signatures was based on the
belief that certain plants would cure certain parts of the
human body which they resembled, as, a leaf resembling a
liver gave indication that it was a cure for diseases of the
liver, one resembling the heart a cure for diseases of the
heart, etc. It took note also of color, as yellow flowers for
jaundice, and many names of plants originated from this
theory, such as kidneywort, mandrake, scorpion-grass, and
others. "In the middle ages, the old belief in trees possessing
intelligence was utilized by the monks in many mediaeval
legends, wherein trees are represented as bending their boughs
52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and offering their fruits to the Virgin and the Divine Infant.
So, again during the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt,
trees are said to have opened and concealed the fugitives from
Herod's brutal soldiery. Certain trees (notably the aspen)
are reputed to have been accursed and to have shuddered and
trembled ever after on account of the connection with the
tragedy of Calvary." Even in our day trees are clothed with
a sort of personality. "Ruskin saw trees as pilgrims, hiding
from winds, reaching to sunshine, crowding to drink at the
streamside, climbing to heavenward ridges, opening in dance
round mossy knolls, or gathering to rest in the fields." So.
books of tree lore with their curious legends of by-gone-times
are found on our library shelves.
To an early magazine, the New England Farmer, established
in Boston in 1822 and the first journal to devote any impor-
tant extent of its space to horticultural matters, the Massa-
chusetts Horticultural Society in large part owes its birth.
The first editor of this magazine was Thomas G. Fessenden,
author of the New American Gardener. A previous maga-
zine, the Massachusetts Agricultural Repository, started in
1793, added a horticultural department in 1821, but it was
the organ of a society rather than a journal in our present
understanding of the word.
With the foundation of the Society in 1829 a standing com-
mittee on the library was appointed, and the library was be-
gun with the object of educating the gardener and raising the
standard of gardening in Massachusetts. The first books
placed in the library were the gift of one of the founders of
the Society, Robert Manning, and included Forsyth's "Trea-
tise on culture and management of fruit trees," "Clergyman's
recreation" by John Lawrence, and "Vinetum britannicum"
by J. Worlidge. In 1831 when the Society was but two years
old a catalogue of its Library was printed in the New England
Farmer, (August 10) giving 112 titles (190 volumes) includ-
ing Michaux's "North American sylva," New England Farmer,
Repton's "Sketches and hints on landscape gardening," Trans-
actions of the London Horticultural Society, Ventenat's
"Description des plantes nouvelles," seven works by J. G. Lou-
don, Abercrombie's "Practical gardener's companion," Annales
de la Societe ^horticulture de Paris, Linnaeus' "System of na-
THE LURE OF GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 53
ture," translated by William Turton, and Evelyn's "Sylva." In
January, 1854, a catalogue of 33 pages, 24° in size was separ-
ately published giving the titles of 414 volumes, including
such important periodicals as Hovey's Magazine of Horticul-
ture (1835-1853), and Paxton's Magazine of Botany (1834-
'49) ; an interesting feature in volumes 1 and 2 of the Maga-
zine of Horticulture, published under the title The American
gardener's magazine, and register of useful discoveries and
improvements in horticulture and rural affairs is the inscrip-
tion "Presented by C. M. Hovey," its author.
Another catalogue followed in 1867 with 1,290 titles, and one
in 1873, of 155 pages, 8° in size, after which none was issued
until the very fine 4° catalogue arranged in two parts, com-
prising authors and subjects, published 1918-1920, which
shows its collection of American horticultural books to be un-
Early the society merged its original aim into the larger
one of a model horticultural library for present and for future
generations. With this new ambition the collecting of books
became an end in itself and many of the old gardening books
began to find their way to its shelves. These include: the
"Hortus Floridus," 1614, which is described as containing
some of the best copper plate figures of plants ever produced,
and is the work of Crispin Du Pas, a member of a famous
family of engravers; Gerard's "Herball," 1633, the most
famous of all the English herbals, the first edition published
in 1597 is in the Library of the Arboretum ("Americans who
have the proud distinction of being of Royal Indian descent
may be interested to know that a copy of this Herbal in Ox-
ford has been identified as having belonged to Dorothy Rolfe,
the mother-in-law of the Princess Pocahontas") ; Mizaldo,
"Historia hortensium," 1676; Mattioli's "Commentarii," 1554;
and Beale's "Herefordshire orchards," 1724. The Library
possesses also a copy of the rare original issue of the "Nouveau
Du Hamel," treatise on trees and shrubs, published in 83
parts from 1800 to 1819.
During its nearly 100 years of slow yet steady growth the
Society's interest has gradually inclined from the strictly
utilitarian fruits and vegetables of our orchards and kitchen
gardens to the beauty satisfying flowers of our gardens of
54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
pleasure. Such books as the "Roses" and the "Lilies" of
Redoute, an eminent French painter of flowers, Elwes'
"Lilium," Bateman's "Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala,"
Wilmott's "Roses," and Walcott's "North American wild
flowers" with their beautiful colored plates, and Wilson's
"Lilies of eastern A^ia," and "Aristocrats of the garden" all
bear eloquent testimony to this new interest.
In one of our public libraries recently a small boy ap-
proached an assistant and asked for a book on "Salt-Water-
Alley." The assistant, thoroughly puzzled, sent him to an-
other room with his strange request, there he was equally un-
successful and returned to the first assistant. "What is the
book about?" she asked. "About the man that threw down
his coat for the queen to walk on," was the reply. Sir Walter
Raleigh, to be sure ! Our horticultural libraries may not be
confronted by requests so amusing, but they nevertheless re-
ceive those equally perplexing, a test of the imagination and
of quick thought. Some of these Miss Manks has indicated
in her very helpful article "The New Library Service" in the
Yearbook of the Society for 1926, where she has also given a
list of the books received during the year 1925, and the peri-
odicals currently received, numbering 150, a wide interest in
landscape gardening manifest in both groups.
The Society's magazine Horticulture is an amateurs' paper
and probably the only amateur paper in America devoted en-
tirely to gardening.
A unique department of the Library of which Mr. Rich is
justly proud and one probably nowhere duplicated is its col-
lection of seed and nursery trade lists, numbering 16,916 ; of
these 11,820 represent firms in the United States on which the
Society has specialized, while the remaining 5,096 are from
Canada, Chili, Costa Rica, Asia, Africa, Australasia and
nearly all the countries of Europe.
In America botanic gardens have been in existence since
1728 when John Bartram founded his botanic garden in Phila-
delphia, and about 1737 Robert Prince established at Flush-
ing, L. I., the Prince nursery, which was perhaps the first
large commercial nursery in America. Prince was one of a
community of French Huguenots who in 1730 settled on the
north shore of Long Island bringing with them many cuttings
THE LURE OP GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 55
and seeds of fruit trees together with the love of horticulture
that brought them success in the New World. The earliest
printed catalogues issued by the Prince nursery are in the
Library of the New York agricultural experiment station at
Geneva. They are broadsides printed in New York, the first
reads: "To be sosd (sic), by William Prince at Flushing-Land-
ing 1771," and offers among other plants "English Cherries,
Plumbs, Nectarines, E-asberries, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs,
Timber Trees and Flowering Shrubs." The second was issued
in 1790, with the addition of Roses. Photostat copies of these
lists together with a copy of the earliest issued in book form,
1820, are in possession of the Library of the Arnold Arbore-
tum. A still earlier list is in the Library of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society, it is that of George Spriggs, gardener
to John Hancock, a facsimile copy of the Boston Gazette and
County Journal, March 12, 1770, which offers a large assort-
ment of English fruit trees. "Garden seeds to be sold by
Edmund Heard in Lancaster," is a facsimile copy from the
Massachusetts Spy or Worcester Gazette, April 3, 1783.
A small manuscript English catalogue of four leaves un-
signed and undated but apparently between 1700 and 1800
naively states "Here follows a catalogue of divers sorts of fruits
which I had of my very loving friend Captain Gar lie dwelling
at the Great Nursery between Spittle-fields and White Chappel,
a very eminent and ingenious nurseryman who can furnish
any that desireth with any of the sorts hereafter mentioned."
The earliest printed trade catalogue in the Library is about
1823 "A catalogue of fruit trees for sale by Daniel Smith at
Burlington, in the state of New Jersey, listing apples at 18%c,
Peaches 12%c, Pears 25c."
In a supplement to the New England Farmer, vol. vi,
1828 is a "Periodical catalogue of fruit and ornamental trees
and shrubs, green-house plants, etc., cultivated and for sale at
the Horticultural and Botanic Garden of Brooklyn, corner of
the Jamaica and Flat-bush roads, about 2 miles from the city
of New York, Andrew Parmentier, Proprietor. Apples 37^0
each. Those marked C are cider fruit, those marked B are
the best table fruit."
Two hundred and forty-two in number the apples are ar-
ranged by the month in which they are best for eating, be-
56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
ginning with Red Juneating, and ending with Menemonisten,
February to May. Pears are priced at 37 %c, Cherries at 50c
David Landreth the elder, born in England in 1752, estab-
lished in Philadelphia in 1784 the oldest seed-house in
America, this is now in the hands of the fourth generation.
Of its catalogues the library has thirty -three dating from 1828
to 1910, recent catalogues being issued only for wholesale
Muriel Stuart in her charming little poem "The Seed Shop"
thrills our imagination with the beauty and majesty impris-
oned in the tiny seeds.
"Here in a quiet and a dusty room they lie,
Faded as crumpled stone or shifting sand,
Forlorn as ashes, shriveled, scentless, dry —
Meadows and gardens running through my hand.
"Here in their safe and simple house of death,
Sealed in their shells a million roses leap ;
Here I can blow a garden with my breath ;
And in my hand a forest lies asleep."
In the twelfth book of his "Historie of the World," printed
in the 16th century, Pliny enters at large on the subject of
trees and forests and extols them as the most valuable pres-
ents conferred by nature upon mankind. This feeling was
shared by the trustees of a fund under the will of James Ar-
nold of New Bedford who in 1869 left a sum of money to be
used for the "promotion of agricultural or horticultural im-
provements, or other philosophical or philanthropic purposes,"
and in 1872 when the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was
43 years old an indenture was signed by the Arnold trustees
and by the President and Fellows of Harvard College which
brought into being the Arnold Arboretum, whose purpose
was to grow every woody plant which would support this
climate. In 1873 Professor Sargent was appointed its Di-
rector. Unlike the library of the Massachusetts Horticul-
tural Society the Library of the Arboretum from its begin-
ning, like Topsey, "jes' growed." Without thought of build-
ing up a great library, Professor Sargent (to use his words)
bought for "his own use a few books needed for the arrange-
ment of the future Arboretum." Later when it "was deter-
THE LURE OF GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 57
mined to prepare at the Arboretum an account of the trees
of North America (his "Silva"), works on dendrology and de-
scriptive botany essential to the production of that work were
obtained by him."
In 1892 the number of volumes had increased to six thou-
sand and Professor Sargent presented them to the University.
The joy of the real collector began to make itself felt and with
the aid of important gifts Professor Sargent continued to add
to the Library, until it now numbers more than 37,000 bound
volumes, and in addition to its value as a reference library it is
a treasure house, rich in old and rare works. Essentially a
dendrological library, it embraces many allied and overlap-
ping subjects, including a large group of books of travel, con-
taining important or interesting articles on, or lists of, woody
plants, or bearing upon the countries visited by the Arbore-
Three hundred and fifty periodicals are currently received,
the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum as a medium of ex-
change bringing an interesting number from gardens and in-
stitutions in nearly every country of the world.
Among its rarest books are the "Viridarium Cliffortianum"
of Linnaeus, believed to be the only copy in the United States
since the loss of a copy in the San Francisco earthquake of
1906, "Herbarium" of Apuleius Platonicus, the only copy
in this country, "Ortuli" and "De cultur hortorum," of
Columella of which no other copies have been reported in this
country, "Ortus sanitatis," "Gart der gesundheit," "De viribus
herbarum" of Macer Floridus, and two editions of Conrad von
Megenberg's "Buch der natur." The 1475 edition of "Das
buch der natur" valued at $4,000 is the gift of Mr. J. P.
Morgan, the only other copy in America being in his own li-
brary, and the 1478 edition, the gift of Mrs. J. M. Sears, is
the only copy in America. Other rare books are : Jacquin's
"Selectarum stirpium americanum historia," cir. 1780, of
which there were only eighteen copies issued, and at the time
the Arboretum copy was obtained it was the only one in this
country ; there are now two other copies, one in the Library of
the New York Botanical Garden and one in the Congressional
Library in Washington; Captain Thomas Brown's Illustra-
tions of the American ornithology of Alexander Wilson and
58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
C. L. Bonaparte, folio edition, published in London in 1835,
of which only thirteen copies are known to exist, eight being
in the United States.
Of special interest also are Crescentius' "Opus ruralium"
(cir. 1492) the first book on agriculture; Cornut's "Cana-
densium plantarum" 1635, only 15 years after the landing of
the Pilgrim Fathers, and the first book which describes and
figures American plants ; Wangenheim's "Description of some
North American trees and shrubs," 1871, the first book on
American trees by a German; Belon's "Conifers," 1553, the
first book on conifers ; Boym's "Flora sinensis," 1556, the first
European book on Chinese botany; Rossig's "Die rosen,"
from the Castlecraig Library in England ; Chinese paintings
of flowers on rice paper giving a marvellous velvety texture,
supposed to have been done 100 yeaTS ago ; a copy of the beau-
tiful subscription edition of Audubon's "Birds of America,"
subscribed for by Professor Sargent's father, Ignatius Sar-
gent; and the two folios of Dioscorides' "Codex" in heavy
board covers reproducing in facsimile the pages and plates
of the famous manuscript prepared in 512 A. D. for Anicia
Juliana, daughter of the Emperor of the Eastern Empire,
which manuscript is now preserved in the Hofbibliothek at
Vienna. The original of the "Codex" is the oldest known
manuscript of a botanical work written in Greek on materia
medica in the first century after Christ and describes or
names more than five hundred plants. For sixteen centuries
this book was considered the highest authority, and be-
came the basis of modern treatises on botany, and from
it this science derives nearly all its nomenclature. A curi-
ous little book worthy a moment of our attention is "New
England's rarities discovered," by John Josselyn, Gen-
tleman, published in London, 1672, just fifty years after the
landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. It has the peculiar interest
of containing the first published lists of English plants that
would thrive in America, also lists of plants found growing
indigenously with their uses by the Indians. It is dedicated
to his friend Samuel Fortrey and acknowledges his assistance
in making the eight years' tour of America. Tucked away in
a corner of the Library, inconspicuous in their brown leather
backs, are eight volumes boasting no number of years nor
THE LURE OF GARDENING AS EXPRESSED BY ITS LITERATURE 59
rarity of contents, yet full of romance, warmth of affection,
and esteem and pride in their conceit that not again in any age
nor in any library shall their counterpart be found. They are
the volumes of Elwes' and Henry's "Trees of Great Britain and
Ireland." In the first volume we read in manuscript, "To
Charles Sprague Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum.
These volumes are offered by a few friends in Great Britain
and Ireland, in grateful recognition of his scientific and prac-
tical works Whereby their knowledge has been enlarged, their
woodlands enriched, and their gardens embellished." Follow-
ing are the signatures of the twenty-nine friends. Each vol-
ume is bound in a different sort of wood from a characteristic
British tree, and each wood used has its little touch of
sentiment. As in : Vol. i "Beech. This wood was used in the
foundation of Winchester Cathedral in the 13th or 14th cen-
tury, and was taken out when repairs were being made some
years ago ; it was found to be sound, though the oak in the
same part of the foundations was decayed." Another : "Popu-
lous canescens, from one of the trees admired by Prof. Sargent
at Colesborne." — a third : "Lucombe Oak, from one of the ori-
ginal trees planted by Lucombe, at the entrance to the old
Possessing in equal degree the tender human touch are the
five modest crash bound volumes of Mr. Faxon's original
drawings made for the "Silva," during the twenty years from
its inception to its completion in 1902. Exquisite, marvellous,
perfect in detail, well they merit Professor Sargent's words
of praise, "In his drawings Faxon united accuracy with grace-
ful composition of outline . . . among the very few who in
all time have excelled in the art of botanical draftsmanship
(his) position is secure and his name will live with those of
the great masters of his art as long as plants are studied."
From 1888 to 1897 Professor Sargent edited, at the Ar-
boretum, Garden and forest, a journal of horticulture, land-
scape gardening and forestry, which "played a large part in
the development in this country of knowledge, enthusiasm
and good taste in regard to the outdoor arts." Since its dis-
continuance, due in large part to the death of its managing
editor, "its reputation has increased rather than diminished."
A most valued adjunct to the books is the collection of more
60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
than 12,000 photographs, telling in picture the stories of
trees, gardens, and countries, together with portraits of the
men who have interpreted nature and made our libraries
All honor to him who through fifty-four years of scientific
labors nevertheless gave freely of his time, thought and means
to building up so complete and balanced a library, worthy
to stand by the side of his Herculean scientific tasks as a
monument to a great and wise man.
In closing let me turn again to The Floral Magazine and
Botanical Repository and quote from its preface of 1832 :
"There is a fascination in the works of Nature, which is as
ceaseless as irresistible ; and strong must that charm be, which
could lead a Wilson or an Audubon through the interminable
wilderness, studying the habits, properties, and plumage of
the feathered race, or, with equal zeal a Bartram or a Nuttall,
prying with Argus eyes into the hidden or untold treasures
of the vegetable kingdom. Next to the pleasure to be derived
from beholding plants and flowers, as disposed indigenously
o'er hill and dale, is the gratification arising from their cul-
ture and protection. Of all amusements, the cultivation of
flowers is probably the most conducive to health and an even
temperament of mind; of all luxuries, flowers are the most
innocent; of all embellishments, the most beautiful. Their
culture yields pleasure unalloyed, and they who pursue it
from innate love, are seldom otherwise than happy."
"In Eastern lands they talk in flowers,
And tell in a garland their loves and cares,
Each blossom that blooms in their garden bowers,
On its leaves a mystic language bears."
Garden Clubs and Societies of
Amherst Garden Club
President, Mrs. George Cutler, 42 Pleasant St.
Vice-President, Mrs. H. W. Doughty
Secretary, Mrs. D. Nelson Skillings
Amherst Women's Club (Garden Section)
President, Mrs. Geo. B. Churchill, (Mable F.) Spring St.
Secretary, Mrs. Brooks Drain, Fearing St.
Beverly Improvement Society
President, Mrs. Marion Swasey Royce, 24 Hale St., Beverly
Secretary, Miss Bessie A. Baker, Monument Sq., Beverly
Cape Ann Garden Club
President, Mrs. James L. Stuart, Bass Rocks, Gloucester
Secretary, Mrs. Harry H. Walker, Eastern Point, Glouces-
ter (Winter, 390 Commonwealth Ave., Boston)
Chelmsford Garden Club
President, Miss Carrie E. Richardson, Chelmsford
Secretary, Miss Maud H. Perham, Chelmsford
Chestnut Hill Garden Club
President, James D. Colt, Suffolk Rd., Chestnut Hill
Secretary, Ernest B. Dane, 6 Beacon St., Boston
Cohasset Garden Club
President, Mrs. J. F. McElwain, 53 Chestnut St., Boston
Secretary, Mrs. W. DeFord Bigelow, 30 Gloucester St.,
Community Garden Club of Duxbury
President, Dr. Nathaniel W. Emerson, Duxbury
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Oliver D. Hogue, South
Recording Secretary, Mr. Frederick W. Mattheis, South
62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Concord Garden Club
President, Florence Taft Eaton, Concord
Secretary, Mrs. Francis B. Shepley, Concord
Cottage Garden Club op Gloucester
President, Mrs. Lida Bacon
Secretary, Mrs. Hollis Griffin, Washington St.
Country Garden Club of Swansea
President, Mrs. Harold Anthony, South Swansea
Secretary, Mrs. T. E. Sanford
Deerfleld Garden Club
President, Charles Huntington Smith
Secretary, Mrs. Luanna Thorn
Duxbury Garden Club
President, Mrs. Robert C. King, 47 Francis St., Maiden
(Summer, King Caesar Rd., Duxbury)
Secretary, Mrs. Sydney Harwood, 137 Marlboro St., Boston
Fitchburg Garden Club
President, Mrs. Clesson Leitch, 14 Burnap St.
Secretary, Mrs. Harold F. Morris, 46 Pacific St.
Program Committee, chairman, Mrs. Mary F. Colburn, 38
Greater Lynn Garden Club
President, Mrs. Edward M. Barney, 21 Baltimore St.
Secretary, Miss Beth Brown
Groton Garden Club
President, Mrs. H. H. Richards, Farmers Row, Groton
Secretary, Mrs. C. L. Curtis, Hollis St., Groton
Hingham Garden Club
President, Francis H. Lincoln
Secretary, Mrs. Robert St. B. Boyd
Treasurer, Francis Hastings
Ipswich Garden Club
President, Mrs. George B. DeBlois, 62 Chestnut St., Boston
Treasurer, Mrs. Arthur A. Shurtleff, 66 Mount Vernon St.,
garden clubs and societies of massachusetts 63
Lawrence Garden Club
President, Mrs. William J. Bradley, 89 Knox St.
Secretary, Miss Lillian M. Wainwright
Lenox Garden Club
President, Miss Georgiana W. Sargent, Lenox
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Marion S. Davies, Lenox
Little Garden Club of Greater Boston
President, Mrs. Walter Brady, 11 Claremont St., E. Brain-
Secretary, Mrs. Edward Haskell, Beverly
Littleton Garden Club
President, Miss Alice M. Howard, Littleton
Secretary, Mrs. E. P. Sargent, Littleton
Lowell Garden Club
President, Mrs. Thomas Nesmith
Secretary, Mrs. Wm. B. Goodwin
Marblehead Garden Club
President, Mrs. William Chisholm, 41 Chestnut St.
Secretary, Mrs. Bradshaw Langmaid, 11 Gregory St.
Martha's Vineyard Garden Club
President, Mrs. T. M. R. Meikleham, Nunnepoag, Edgar-
(Winter, 40 Hawthorne St., Cambridge)
Secretary, Miss E. W. Edwards, Edgartown, M. V.
Melrose Garden Club
President, Mrs. Edwin M. Wilder, 88 Vinton St.
Secretary, Mrs. Robert L. Munson, 357 East Foster St.
Milton Garden Club
President, Mrs. Philip L. Spaulding, Highland St.
Secretary, Mrs. Alexander H. Ladd, 381 Center St., Milton
Nahant Garden Club
President, Mrs. Fred A. Wilson, Nahant
Secretary, Mr. Harry R. Cummings, Nahant
Newton Garden Club
President and Secretary, Herbert C. Fraser, 48 Eldredge St.
64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Newtonville Garden Club
President, Mrs. Ziegler, "Walnut Street, Newtonville
Noanett Garden Club
President, Mrs. J. W. Farley, Needham
Secretary, Mrs. Frances W. Bird, E. Walpole
North Andover Garden Club
President, Mrs. L. S. Bigelow, 1010 Fifth Ave., New York
Secretary, Mrs. John Coolidge, 171 Commonwealth Ave.,
North A,ttleboro Garden Club
President, John J. Bliek
Secretary, Fred C. Paye
North Shore Garden Club of Massachusetts
President, Mrs. Henry G. Vaughan, Sherborn
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Ward Thoron, The Lindens,
Peabody Garden Club
President, Mrs. H. H. Buxton, 114 Central St., Peabody
Secretary, Mrs. George R. Underwood, 10 Emerson St.,
Richmond Garden Club
President, Mrs. W. Rockwood Gibbs
Salem Garden Club
President, Willis H. Ropes
Secretary, Mrs. Willard B. Porter
Scituate Garden Club
President, Mrs. William C. Reynolds, Minot
Secretary, Mrs. Henry T. Wing
Springfield Garden Club
President, Willard A. Boyd, 102 Dartmouth St., Springfield
Recording Secretary, Mrs. Harry A. Wells, 104 Ellington
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Gurdon W. Gordon, 90 Dart-
mouth St., Springfield
garden clubs and societies of massachusetts 65
Swampscott Little Garden Club
President, Mrs. Gertrude W. Phillips
Secretary, Mrs. Lottie L. Eaton
The Cambridge Plant Club
President, Mrs. L. E. Emerson, 64 Sparks St., Cambridge
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Caroline E. Peabody, 40
Recording Secretary, Miss Lucy Davis, 19 Craigie St., Cam-
The Garden Club op Greater New Bedford
President, Mrs. Etta A. Horton, 604 County St.
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Mary S. Perry, 490
Recording Secretary, Mrs. John T. Hanna, 116 Cottage St.
The Garden Club of Swampscott
President, Miss Helen Guild, 222 Commonwealth Ave.,
Secretary, Mrs. Weston Lewis
The Holyoke & Northampton Florist's and Gardener's
President, R. S. Carey, South Hadley Falls
Secretary, H. S. Sinclair, 166 Oak St., Holyoke
Wayland Garden Club
President, Mrs. J. Sidney Stone
Recording Secretary, Mrs. Charles F. Richardson
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. George W. Lewis
Worcester Garden Club
President, Mrs. John M. Thayer, 44 Harvard St.
Secretary, Mrs. Charles D. Wheeler, 47 West St.
Lawn Building and Seeding*
"England has the best turf in the world" is a statement
that is very often heard. Then the question that follows is
invariably "Why can't America have as good turf?" America
can have good turf and does have good turf, but it requires
more attention than the English turf.
The four main factors governing a good turf are :
1. Climate, which is uncontrollable.
2. Soil, which is partially controllable.
3. The fact that our cultivated grasses are not native,
which is uncontrollable.
4. Seed selection, a very important factor and decidedly
To return to the comparison with English turf. England
has ideal climate, cool and moist, with moderate extremes of
temperature. Furthermore, English soil is good, the culti-
vated grasses are native to the continent and they have
better control over the seed than we do.
Inasmuch as the climate is uncontrollable, let us consider
the first controllable factor, that of soil. By soil we mean
not only the top soil but the earth to a depth of at least five
feet. This is divided into foundation soil, subsoil, and top
The foundation is uncontrollable and therefore must be
examined carefully and accepted as is. The character of the
foundation determines the necessary treatment of the sub-
soil. Hard pan, rock ledge, gravel and sand foundations
must be subsoiled differently so as to assure the desirable
amount of water being retained for use during dry weather.
One must bear in mind that irrigation will not offset rapid
The subsoil, that earth between the top soil and founda-
tion, is the real governor of the water supply to the grass
roots. Over an uneven foundation the subsoil should be
uneven in depth. This subsoil may be any earth of good
water retention properties, the problem being to create a
*A lecture by Lawrence S. Dickinson of the Massachusetts College of Agricul-
ture, before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, June 4, 1927.
LAWN BUILDING AND SEEDING 67
reservoir under the lawn that will reach its saturation point
simultaneously over the entire area, and evenly return to
the grass roots the soil moisture by capillarity.
Sometimes it is necessary to cap a gravel strata with clay
or a layer of hard coal ashes to prevent excessive drainage,
and to dig a gravel well in an unusually wet spot. The
subsoil and therefore the water supply can be governed,
and if the funds for building the lawn are limited, the largest
percentage may well be spent in the subsoil.
Top soil, usually considered as "rich black loam" need not
be over four inches deep if the subsoil is properly attended
to. The main purpose of this soil is to furnish the grass with
plant food. Any good garden soil reasonably free from
weeds is suitable.
Naturally the more humus that it contains, the better.
And it should have good physical properties, not clay enough
to cake, or sand enough to encourage ants and fast leaching
of the valuable plant foods and applied fertilizer.
A few precautions are necessary in the preparation of the
seed bed. First the subsoil should be plowed, harrowed,
rolled, harrowed, rolled, regraded if necessary to eliminate
hollows and humps, and again harrowed. This will assure
an even settling and a uniform capillary action.
Over the subsoil the top soil should be spread if possible,
not scraped or dumped and spread. The latter two methods
are likely to create hard spots. If the top soil is spread,
all that is needed to prepare for the seed is a careful hand
raking and grading to the proper grade lines. If the top
soil is scraped or dumped, it must be thoroughly harrowed
before hand raking to the finished grade.
Having prepared the seed bed, the next question is seed.
A house representing an investment of at least $10,000 is
worthy of the best seed obtainable. In Massachusetts, Ehode
Island bent seed or South German bent seed are probably
the two best varieties to purchase. For excellent lawns seed
mixtures, particularly the cheaper grades, are not to be
The next precaution necessary is to sow plenty of seed
in the right season of the year. Bents should be sown at
the rate of at least 80 lbs per acre and preferably 95 lbs.
68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
There is no doubt that fall, from September 1 to October 1, is
the very best period of the year in which to seed a lawn.
Weeds are at their weakest stage, or dormant, the young
grass plants have time to establish themselves and further-
more develop a heavy and deep root system which spring
planted grasses do not. These grass plants are ready to
start before weeds think of germinating in the spring, and
can compete with the weed with a large advantage to their
Estimated relative values for the several factors entering
into the development of a good lawn are, foundation 20%,
subsoil 35%, top soil 10%, seed 15%, rate of seeding 5%,
time of seeding 15%.
The Late Professor Charles Sprague
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society suffered a severe
loss in the death of Professor Charles Sprague Sargent, Di-
rector of the Arnold Arboretum for 54 years, which occurred
March 22, 1927. At the time of his death Professor Sargent
was a vice-president of the Society, Chairman of the Library
Committee, Chairman of the George Robert White Medal of
Honor Committee and a member of several other committees.
He had been a member of the Society for over 50 years,
having been enrolled in 1870. Most of that time he was one
of the Society's most active members, having a conspicuous
part in every forward movement and being largely responsi-
ble for the development of the Library, which is now the
most important horticultural library on this continent if not
in the world. Professor Sargent had much to do with the
construction of the present Horticultural Hall and his ad-
vice was always sought whenever any new undertaking
Many tributes to Professor Sargent's ability, sagacity
and high character were published at the time of his death.
One of the best was that which appeared in the "Outlook"
for April 6, 1927 and which read as follows :
"Charles Sprague Sargent, for fifty-six years director of
the Arnold Aboretum of Harvard, is dead. Some time soon
a movement will be launched to erect to him a suitable monu-
ment. It will be a movement futile except in so far as it
may enable those who loved him to feel that they have done
something to honor the memory of a great man. His monu-
ments are builded, numerous and enduring. The Arnold
Arboretum is his monument. He took an inadequate fund, a
worn-out farm, a willing spirit, and 'in a few years,' as it
seemed to him, transformed them into the greatest ar-
boretum on earth. That it is the greatest is indicated by the
fact that a few years ago a Chinese came there to make an
exhaustive study of the trees of China.
" 'The Silva of North America' is his monument. John
Muir read it as he would have read a novel, and regretted
The Late Professor Charles Sprague Sargent
THE LATE PROFESSOR CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 71
that there was not more of it. It consists of only fourteen
"Thousands of gardens in America and in Europe are his
monuments. They have been made lovely by the trees and
plants which he searched the world for and propagated.
"The wooded sides of the Adirondacks are his monuments.
He laid the foundation of the New York State forestry
work and saved the mountain woods.
"The redwood forests of the Pacific coast are his monu-
ment. His was the leading spirit in the movement which
saved the giant trees.
"Glacier National Park is his monument. He made the
first proposal for the setting aside of that region as a park —
thirty years before it was actually set aside.
"The multiplied millions of acres of National Forests are
his monument. Establishment of the National Forest policy
resulted from the study of the National Academy of Science
Commission, of which he was chairman. He took the lead-
ing part in inducing President Cleveland to make the first
reservation of 21,000,000 acres. Later, when pressure against
the policy was heavy and President McKinley was ready to
turn the Forest Reserves back into the public domain, he
took the leading part in inducing the Chief Executive to
change his mind.
"No monument that can be erected will equal the least of
these, for, as commemorating the achievements of such a
Marble is dust,
Cold and repellent,
And iron is rust."
Exhibitions for 1928
Grand Exhibition of Spring Flowering Plants, March 20-25
Tuesday, 3 to 10 P. M. ; Wednesday, Thursday, Friday,
Saturday, 10 A. M. to 10. P. M. ; Sunday, 1 to 10 P. M.
Iris, Rhododendron and Azalea Exhibition, June 9-10
Saturday, 3 to 9 P. M. ; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P. M.
Peony, Rose, Strawberry and Sweet Pea Exhibition,
Friday, 3 to 9 P. M. ; Saturday, 10 A. M. to 9 P.M.; Sun-
day 12 M. to 9 P. M.
Gladiolus Exhibition, August 18-19.
Saturday, 3 to 9 P. M. ; Sunday, 12 M to 9 P. M.
Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens,
Saturday and Sunday, 1 to 6 P. M.
Dahlia Exhibition, September 8-9
Saturday, 3 to 9 P. M. ; Sunday, 12 M. to 9 P. M.
Grand Autumn Exhibition of Plants, Flowers, Fruits and
Vegetables, November 2-4
Friday, 3 to 9 P. M. ; Saturday, 10 A. M. to 9 P.M.; Sun-
day, 12 M. to 9 P. M.
New books added to the Library in the year 1927 include
the following :
American Rose Society. American rose annual. 1927.
American Rose Society. Index to American rose annual, 1916-
Arnold Arboretum. The Arnold Arboretum and its future. 1927.
Averill, M. The flower art of Japan. 1915.
Averill, M. Japanese flower arrangement. 1922.
Bailey, H. T. Tree folk. 1927.
Bailey, L. H. Farm and garden rule-book; 19th ed. 1923.
Beal, A. C. The gladiolus and its culture. 1927.
Bennett, A. C. Electroculture, the application of electricity to
seeds in vegetable growing. 1921.
Bois, D. Les plantes alimentaires chez tous les peuples et a travers
les ages. 1927.
Bose, Sir J. C. Plant autographs and their revelations. 1927.
Burbank, L. and Hall, W. The harvest of the years. 1927.
Burkhill, I. H. Illustrated guide to the Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
Burroughs, J. Locusts and wild honey, cop. 1879.
Bush-Brown, L. Flowers for every garden. 1927.
Calthrop, D. C. The diary of an eighteenth-century garden.
Cane, P. S. Modern gardens, British and foreign. 1926.
Chorlton, W. Chorlton's grape growers' guide. 1920.
Clampett, F. W. Luther Burbank. 1926.
Cloud, K. M.-P. The cultivation of shrubs. 1927.
Clute, W. N. A dictionary of American plant names ; 2d ed. 1923.
Congres national d'arboriculture fruitiere commerciale. Memoires
et comptes rendus. 1925.
Correvon, H. Atlas de la flore alpine. 1901. 6v.
Correvon, H. Champs et bois fleuris; suite de fleurs des champs
et des bois. 1922.
Correvon, H. Delia culture delle piante alpine nelle regione seche
e calde. 1904.
Correvon, H. La flore alpine; 2d ed. rev.
Correvon, H. Nos arbres dans la nature. 1920.
Correvon, H. Plantes et sante; 2d ed. 1922.
Cosgrave, J. G. Gardens : quick results with flowers and vegetables.
Cotter, Sir J. L. A simple guide to rock gardening. 1926.
Cox, E. H. M. Farrer's last journey : upper Burma 1919-20. 1926.
74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Curtis, J. H. Life of Campestris Ulm. 1910.
Dixon, R. and Fitch, F. E. The human side of trees. 1917.
Durand, H. My wild flower garden. 1927.
Farrer, R. On the eaves of the world. 1926. 2v.
Farrer, R. The rainbow bridge. 1926.
Faure, G. Gardens of Rome, tr. by F. Kemp. 1924.
Findlay, H. Garden making and keeping. 1926.
Freeman, E. M. The home vegetable-garden. 1922.
Fullerton, E. L. The book of the home garden. 1919.
Gallotti, J. Moorish houses and gardens of Morocco. 1925. 2v.
Giles, D. The little kitchen garden. 1926.
Gromort, G. Jardins d'Espagne. 1926.
Hallbaum, F. Der landschaftsgarten, sein entstehen und seine ein-
fuhrung in Deutschland durch Fr. Ludwig von Skell. 1927.
Hamblin, S. F. Lists of plant types for landscape planting. 1923.
Hardenburg, E. V. Bean culture. 1927.
Harrison, I. W. Gardens all the year. 1927.
Hartmann, F. L'agriculture dans l'ancienne Egypte. 1923.
Heald, F. D. Manual of plant diseases. 1926.
Hill, A. F. The vegetation of the Penobscot Bay Region. 1923.
Hitchcock, A. S. Methods of descriptive systematic botany. 1925.
Hole, S. R. The memories of Dean Hole ; 5th ed. 1893.
Hooker, Sir J. D. Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker,
by L. Huxley. 1918. 2v.
Horticultural trade directory; 3d ed. 1927.
House and Garden's second book of gardens. 1927.
House Beautiful gardening manual. 1926.
Johnson, L. H. Foundation planting. 1927.
Junk, W. Bibliographia botanica. 1909-16. 2v.
Kelly, H. A. Some American medical botanists commemorated in
our botanical nomenclature. 1914.
Kift, J. L. The woman's flower garden. 1927.
King, Mrs. F. The beginner's garden. 1927.
King, Mrs. F. The flower garden day by day. 1927.
Kirk, J. W. C. A British garden flora. 1927.
Kruger, G. Die entwicklung von blute und frucht bei der gattung
Law, E. P. A. Hampton Court gardens, old and new. 1926.
Le Blond, E. A. F. The old gardens of Italy, how to visit them.
Leclerc, H. Les fruits de France. 1925.
Lierval, E. Culture pratique des Phlox. 1866.
Lloyd, N. Garden craftsmanship in yew and box. 1925.
Lutz, F. E. Field book of insects. 1918.
LIBRAEY ACCESSIONS 75
Maasz, H. Kleine und grosse garten. 1926.
McCurdy, R, M. Garden flowers. 1926.
McLean, F. T., Clark, TT. E. and Fischer, E. K The gladiolus
Maeself, A. J. The fruit garden. 1926.
Macself, A. J. Vegetable gardening.
Manning, J. W., comp. The plant buyers' index, 1927, general list.
Manwaring, E. W. Italian landscape in eighteenth century Eng-
Marie-Yictorin, Fr. Esquisse systeinatique et ecologique de la
flore dendrologique d'une portion de la rive sud du Saint-Laurent
aux environs de Longueuil. P. Q. 1922.
Marie-Yictorin, Fr. Etudes floristiques sur la region du lac Saint-
Marie-Victorin, Fr. Les equisetinees de Quebec. 1927.
Marie-Yictorin, Fr. Les fHicinees du Quebec. 1923.
Marie-Yictorin, Fr. Les gymnospermes du Quebec. 1927.
Marie-Yictorin, Fr. Sur quelques composees nouvelles, rares ou
critiques du Quebec oriental. 1925.
Marshall, N. L. Mosses and lichens. 1907.
Marshall, W. E. & Co. Consider the lilies. 1927.
Marzell, H. Die pflanzen im deutschen volksleben. 1925.
Mawson, T. H. The art and craft of garden making; 5th ed. rev.
McKinney, E. P. Iris in the little garden. 1927.
Mattoon, W. R. Forest trees of Connecticut, 1926.
Meisel, M. A bibliographv of American natural history. 1924-26.
Millais, J. G. Magnolias. 1927.
Morse, R. and Palmer, R. British weeds, their identification and
Muir, J. Our national parks ; illus. ed. 1901.
National Rose Society (British). The enemies of the rose; new
National Rose Society. Select list of roses and instructions for
National Rose Society. Rose annual. 1927.
N. Y. Public Library. Gardens and gardening; a selected list of
Notcutt, R. C. A handbook of flowering trees and shrubs for gar-
Parsons, S. Memories of Samuel Parsons; ed. bv Mabel Parsons.
Pepoon, H. S. Flora of the Chicago region. 1927.
76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Perold, A. I. A treatise on viticulture. 1927.
Pfitzer, P. Edelgladiolen, ihre entwicklung, anzucht, pflege und
Praeger, R. L. An account of the genus Sedum as found in cultiva-
Quear, C. L. School and home gardens. 1926.
Render, A. Charles Sprague Sargent. 1927.
Render, A. A manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in
North America. 1927.
Retuerta, M. G. Cultivo de frutales arboreos y arbustivos en
todos los continentes. 1925.
Robbins, W. W. Principles of plant growth: an elementary bot-
Robinson, W. The English flower garden; 14th ed. 1926.
Rockwell, F. F. The book of bulbs. 1927.
Rockwell, F. F. Gladiolus. 1927.
Rogers, J. E. Trees that every child should know. 1909.
Ross, A. B. Big crops from little gardens. 1925.
Royal Horticultural Society. Catalogue of the Lindley Library.
Royal Horticultural Society. Rules for judging; 8th ed. 1925.
Rydberg, P. A. Flora of the Rocky Mountains. 1922.
Sargent, F. L. Corn plants, their uses and ways of life. 1899.
Sargent, F. L. Lichenology for beginners. 1905.
Sargent, F. L. Plants and their uses. 1927.
Sargent, F. L. A working system of color. 1927.
Shepherd, J. C. and Jellicoe G. A. Italian gardens of the Renais-
Sherlock, C. C. Successful rose culture.
Smith, J. B. Economic entomology for the farmer and fruit-
Spillman, W. J. Balancing the farm output. 1927.
Sudell, R. The town gardening handbook. 1927.
Tahourdin, C. B. Native orchids of Britain. 1925.
Taylor, G. C. The propagation of hardy trees and shrubs. 1927.
Thwaites, R. G., ed. Travels west of the Alleghanies. 1904.
Tourney, G. W. Seeding and planting: a manual for forestry
students, foresters, [etc.] 1916.
Treat, M. Injurious insects of the farm and garden ; enl. ed. 1914.
Voorhees, E. B. Fertilizers: the source, character and composition
of fertilizer materials, and suggestions as to their use; 2d rev.
Walcott, M. V. North American wild flowers, v. 3. 1925.
Ward, F. K. From China to Hkamti Long. 1924.
LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 77
Watson, W. Cactus culture for amateurs; 4th ed.
Waugh, F. A. Book of landscape gardening; new and rev. ed.
Waugh, F. A. Formal design in landscape architecture. 1927.
Webster, A. D. Town planting. 1910.
Webster, A. D. Tree wounds and diseases. 1916.
Wheeler, W. M. Social life among the insects. 1923.
White, E. A. American orchid culture. 1927.
White, E. A. Principles of flower arrangement; 2d ed. rev. and
Wickson, W. J. California garden flowers; 3d ed. 1926.
Wilder, L. B. Colour in my garden. 1927.
Wilmore, W. W . The dahlia manual ; rev. ed. 1926.
Wilson, E. H. Plant hunting. 1927. 2v.
Wister, J. C. The Iris. 1927.
Wright, H. J. and Wright, W. P. Beautiful flowers and how to
grow them; rev. ed. 1926.
Young, S. H. Alaska days with John Muir. 1915.
Periodicals Currently Received 1927
* Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales. Sidney.
Agricultural Index. New York.
American Bee Journal. Hamilton, 111.
*American Botanist. Joliet, 111.
*American Dahlia Society. Bulletin. New Haven.
* American Fern Journal. Auburndale, Mass.
American Florist. Chicago.
* American Forests and Forest Life. Washington.
* American Fruit Grower Magazine. Chicago.
* American Gladiolus Society. Official Bulletin. Rochester, N.Y.
*American Iris Society. Bulletin. Wellesley Farms, Mass.
* American Nut Journal. Rochester, N.Y.
* American Peony Society. Bulletin. Robbinsdale, Minn.
American Potato Journal. Takoma Park, D.C.
American Produce Grower. Chicago.
Am-Tel-Flo Messenger. St. Louis.
*Les Amis des Roses. Lyon, France.
*Annals of Botany. London.
* Arnold Arboretum. Bulletin of Popular Information. Boston.
* Arnold Arboretum. Journal. Boston.
*Better Delphiniums. San Raphael, Calif.
*Better Flowers. Portland, Ore.
Better Homes and Gardens. Des Moines, Iowa.
*Boyee Thompson Institute for Plant Research. Contributions.
*Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. Professional
Papers. Yonkers, N.Y.
British Guiana. Board of Agriculture. Journal. Georgetown,
*Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Leaflets. Brooklyn, N.Y.
*Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Record. Brooklyn, N.Y.
*Bryologist. New York.
* California. Department of Agriculture. Bulletin. Sacramento.
*California Garden. Point Loma, Calif.
*Canadian Entomologist. Guelph, Ont.
*Canadian Florist. Peterboro, Ont.
*Canadian Gladiolus Society. Bulletin. Hamilton, Ont.
*Canadian Horticulturist. Peterboro, Ont.
PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED 1927 79
*Le Chrysantheme. Lyons, France.
Cornell Countryman. Ithaca, N.Y.
Country Gentleman. Philadelphia.
Country Life. Garden City, N.Y.
*Curtis's Botanical Magazine. London.
*Dahlia Society of San Francisco. Bulletin, (formerly Dahlia
Society of California.) San Francisco.
*Dahlia Society of New England. Bulletin. New Bedford, Mass.
*Ecology. Lancaster, Pa.
*Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal. Chapel Hill, N.C.
*Experiment Station Record. Washington.
Farm and Fireside. Springfield, Ohio.
Farm Journal. Philadelphia.
Farm Life. Springfield, Mass.
Farming in South Africa. Pretoria.
*Floralia. Assen, Holland.
*Florists' Exchange. New York.
*Florists' Review. Chicago.
*FloAver Grower. Calcium, N.Y.
*Flowering Plants of South Africa. London.
*Forest Leaves. Philadelphia.
* Fruit World of Australasia. Victoria, N.S.W.
*Fruits and Gardens. Grand Rapids, Mich.
*Garden and Home Builder. Garden City, N.Y.
* Garden Club of America. Bulletin. New York.
Garden Gossip. Woodberry Forest, Virginia.
*Garden Life. London.
*Gardeners' Chronicle. London.
*Gardeners' Chronicle (of America). New York.
*Gardening Illustrated. London.
*Gartenkunst. Frankfurt, Germany.
*Geisenheimer Mitteilungen iiber Obst — und Gartenbau. Wies-
*Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture. Journal. London."
Guide to Nature. Sound Beach, Conn.
•Home Acres. New York.
*Hoosier Horticulture. Lafayette, Ind.
L'Horticulteur Chalonnaise. Chalon, France.
80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
L'Horticulture Franchise. Paris.
*House and Garden. Greenwich, Conn.
House Beautiful. Boston.
""International Review of Agricultural Economics. Rome.
^International Review of Agriculture. Rome.
*Ireland. Department of Lands and Agriculture. Journal. Dub-
Japanese Horticultural Society. Journal. Tokyo.
Journal d' Agriculture du Sud-ouest. Toulouse, France.
* Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D.C.
* Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. London.
* Journal of Economic Entomology. Geneva, N.Y.
*Journal of Forestry. Washington.
*Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science. London.
Journal of the Market Garden Field Station. Waltham, Mass.
*Landscape Architecture. Boston.
*Linnean Society. Journal. London.
*Lyon-Horticole et Horticulture Nouvelle Reunis. Lyons, France.
*Market Growers' Journal. Louisville, Ky.
*Minnesota Horticulturist. St. Paul, Minn.
*Missouri Botanical Garden. Annals. St. Louis, Mo.
*Missouri Botanical Garden. Bulletin. St. Louis, Mo.
^Mollers Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung. Berlin.
*Morton Arboretum. Bulletin of Popular Information. Lisle, 111.
*Myeologia. Lancaster, Pa.
* National Horticultural Magazine. Washington.
*National Nurseryman. Hatboro, Pa.
^National Pecan Exchange News. Albany, Ga.
National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild Magazine. New York.
Nature — Garden Guide. New York.
*New England Homestead. Springfield, Mass.
New Jersey Dahlia News. New Brunswick, N.J.
*New York Botanical Garden. Bulletin. New York.
*New York Botanical Garden. Journal. New York.
*Le Nord Horticole. Lille, France.
*Orchid Review. London.
Parks and Recreation. Tulsa, Okla.
*Le Petit Jardin. Paris.
Philippine Agricultural Review. Manila, P.I.
*Pomologie Frangaise. Versailles, France.
Progressive Farmer and Farm Woman. Memphis, Tenn.
*Quarterly Journal of Forestry. London.
PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED 1927 81
*Reale Societa Toscana di Orticulture. Bulletino. Florence, Italy.
*Revue des Eaux et Forets. Paris.
*Revue Horticole. Paris.
Rio de Janeiro. Museu Nacional. Boletim. Rio de Janeiro.
*Royal Horticultural Society. Journal. London.
•Rural New-Yorker. New York.
Santa Barbara Gardener. Santa Barbara, Calif.
*Seed World. Chicago.
Sociedad Rural Argentina. Anales. Buenos Aires.
Societe d'Horticulture d'Orleans et du Loiret. Bulletin. Orleans,
Societe d'Horticulture et de Viticulture d'Epernay. Bulletin.
Societe Horticole, Vigneronne et Forestiere de l'Aube. Annales.
* Societe Rationale d'Horticulture de France. Journal. Paris.
* Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique. Bulletin. Brussels.
* South African Gardening and Country Life. Cape Town.
* Southern Florist and Nurseryman. Fort Worth, Texas.
•Special Crops. Skaneateles, N.Y.
*Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin. Lancaster, Pa.
*Torreya. Lancaster, Pa.
*Tree Talk. Stamford, Conn.
•Tribune Horticole. Brussels, Belgium.
Tropical Agriculture. Trinidad, West Indies.
IT. S, Department of Agriculture. Crops and Markets, Monthly.
Victoria. Department of Agriculture. Journal. Melbourne, Australia.
*Weekly Florist. Chicago.
•Wild Flower. Cincinnati, Ohio.
•Wisconsin Horticulture. Madison, Wis.
World Agriculture. Brookfield, Mass.
Your Garden. Cleveland, Ohio. .
*Zeitschrift flir Obst — Wein — und Gartenbau. Dresden, Germany.
*Zeitschrift fiir Pflanzenkrankheiten und Planzenschutz. Stutt-
Practical Rose Growing*
There seems to be a feeling among the laity in general
that the growing of roses requires skill and a pocketbook,
which all do not possess, and that only professionals can
grow them with any degree of success. This is not true.
There is no location in this broad land of ours where roses
cannot be successfully grown, if the proper varieties, suitable
to the locality, are selected, and reasonable care is given
to them in the way of pruning, fertilizing, and spraying.
Making a Rose Bed
First, we will consider the making of a rose bed. An open,
sunny location should be selected, preferably with a south-
eastern or southwestern exposure, where it may have good
sunlight at least half of the day, and there must be no tall
trees nearby, as roses will not do well if planted under the
shade of trees ; also avoid low ground, as the frost is much
more troublesome there than it would be on a higher plane.
The fall of the year is the best time to make your beds —
then they will be all settled and in better condition for spring
planting. The size and shape of the bed is of no small im-
portance. The most practical is an oblong bed three feet
wide and of any length you may desire. This enables you to
cultivate and work among the bushes without stepping on
the beds, which should always be kept as soft and pliable as
The preparation of the bed depends upon the soil. If
suitable for roses and properly drained, and if one does not
care to devote too much time and labor, all that will be neces-
sary is to throw a goodly amount of well-rotted manure,
some. bone meal, wood ash, and leaf mould over the bed and
spade it in. If, however, the soil is poor or not prop-
erly drained, the better way to do is to dig it out for a depth
of from eighteen to twenty-four inches, and replace it by a
compost, consisting of good clay loam, well mixed with leaf
mould, bone meal, thoroughly rotted manure (either horse or
*A lecture by Dr. G. Griffin Lewis of Syracuse, N. Y., before the Massachu-
setts Horticultural Society, on June 25, 1927.
PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING 83
cow), a little old plaster, and a small amount of charcoal
dust. If the subsoil is a heavy clay or shale, a row of tile
at the very bottom, or even medium sized stones will take
care of the drainage.
Hybrid perpetuals, as a rule, do better in a heavy clay or
loam; the teas, hybrid teas and Bourbons, in a lighter and
warmer soil — fifty per cent clay with more or less sand and
leaf mould ; Rugosas require more sand.
Selection of Roses
Having completed your beds in the fall, your next step is
to make your selection of roses, so that you can get your
order in early. Remember that with the average nursery-
men, orders are filled in order of their receipt, and the first
ones, as a rule, get the pick of the stock, so if you do not get
your order in before January 1st, do not complain if the
bushes sent you are of inferior quality and substitutions are
made. In making your selection do not depend upon cata-
logue descriptions or on agents, but if unacquainted with
the various varieties, seek the help of some rosarian or nurs-
eryman of your acquaintance. By all means patronize none
but trustworthy concerns, and be sure to specify "two-year-
old, field-grown, budded stock, and no substitutions." I
emphasize this for the reason that many nurserymen handle
only the own-root roses which are much cheaper and much
inferior to the budded stock, in that they will not grow as
thriftily, bloom as abundantly, or winter as well. Person-
ally, I would not waste the space or time on own-root roses,
and the small hothouse potted plants are of no use whatever.
The question as to which is preferable, fall or spring
planting, depends upon the climate in which you live, and on
the kind of winter protection which you intend to give them.
There is no question but what roses planted in the fall of
the year, when the ground is still warm, will get a somewhat
better start and perhaps give us a greater abundance of
bloom the first year, providing they are well covered up dur-
ing the cold weather months, for remember that your root
system has become only partially established. Personally,
Rev. F. Page-Roberts Rose
PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING 85
in central New York, I prefer very early spring planting,
just as soon as the frost is out of the ground. Koses planted
at this time will do well and bloom profusely in the following
June, and you will not lose any of them during the next
When your plants arrive early in the spring, if you are
not ready to set them in at once, dig a trench and hill them in
until such a time when you can set them. For the spring
planting, secure a day which is cloudy and not windy, or
else the roots may get dry. A better way is to put a few
bushes in a pail of water, and take out one at a time as they
are planted. We assume that you have properly drawn a
diagram of your bed and placed sticks in the soil at the
places where you wish to dig each hole. By so doing, you
can get the bushes much more evenly placed, for an irregular
row of bushes will spoil the looks of your bed. After re-
moving each rose bush from the water pail, prune the long
center root and if there are any broken roots be sure and
cut them off. Dig your hole large and deep enough, so that
the roots can all be properly spread out. After so doing,
throw the fine soil in until the hole is half filled, then take
hold of the bush at the collar, and shake it up and down, so
that the soil will settle down well around the root, at the
same time pulling the plant up so that the collar will be at
the proper distance (two inches), below the surface of the
bed; then fill the hole mostly full of dirt, and stamp it down
well with your feet, after which the top is filled with loose
After all the roses in the beds have been planted, level
the surface. If the soil is not quite moist enough, pour a
little water in the hole before filling with the loose soil. If
the roses are planted so that they will be diagonally oppo-
site each other in the bed, the bushes will have more room
for expansion without touching each other. Of course, all
roses of whatever variety should be severely pruned just
before or after planting.
It is a great pleasure to watch the development of leaves
and buds on these newly planted roses, and it is amazing
how rapidly this development takes place.
86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Care of Rose Plants
Now begins the care on which the abundance of the bloom
so much depends. I refer to the watering, hoeing, spraying
and dusting, which have so much to do with the success of
There are many insects and diseases which infect the
rose, most of which can be successfully combatted if handled
in the proper manner and at the proper time.
Of the insects, those which we have to contend with mostly
are, first, the aphis, a little green or pinkish sap sucker.
These are easily destroyed by spraying with a solution of
Black-leaf 40 and soap, (seven teaspoonfuls of Black-leaf 40,
one-fourth of small bar of Ivory soap, eight gallons of
The rose beetle, which comes up from the ground about the
middle of June, and usually lives from two to three weeks,
eats the bud and flower. It is limited in its destructive ef-
forts by the application of Bordeaux mixture, Melrosine or
Kerosene Emulsion. Hand-picking is also advisable.
The caterpillar or leaf roller is a green worm with black
head, which lives on the under side of the leaf, causing it to
roll up. For this, we spray with arsenate of lead (one-
fourth part to six gallons of water).
The sawfly enters the cane in the fall, eats the pith, and
makes its exit by boring a hole lower down in the cane.
All such canes should be cut off below the lower hole, while
hellebore dust will partly destroy this fly.
The spider will weave its web around the lower canes of
rose bushes, especially if the latter have not been properly
trimmed out in the centre, when pruned. The leaves will
then turn yellow and fall off. Forcible spraying with the
hose or the application of a soap and quassia solution will
The white grub lives in the soil and eats the roots of the
bush. Ofttimes we have no warning of this pest until the
plant withers, then it should be dug up and destroyed, the soil
searched for this insect, and the ground wet with boiling
water or a formalin solution.
PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING 87
The rose curculio, another beetle, with a bright red body
and black legs, eats holes in the bud in early spring, so that
they will not mature. Handpicking and spraying with the
arsenate of lead solution is advisable.
Diseases of Roses
The best protection against diseases in the plant, like dis-
eases in the individual, is good health and proper nourish-
ment. Insufficient or over feeding will predispose to disease.
The most prevalent disease we have to contend with in
rose life is mildew, with which you rose growers are all more
or less familiar. This is a fungous disease which rarely kills
but greatly reduces the vigor of the plant. Mildew may
occur at almost any season of the year, according to cli-
matic conditions, being more prevalent in damp weather,
but it is most likely to occur in the late summer or early
autumn, when the nights begin to get chilly. As the treat-
ment of mildew is practically the same as for that of black
spot or orange rust, I will refer to the treatment later, after
a .short consideration of the latter two diseases.
There are innumerable diseases which affect the rose, but I
will only take the time to briefly refer to those which are the
most prevalent and destructive.
Brown canker is perhaps the most destructive fungous
disease affecting the rose, and the most discouraging to the
amateur rose grower is the so-called brown canker or cane
blight. It was known in the United States as early as 1904,
but was not generally distributed.
During the past two or three years it has increased rapidly
in prevalence and severity. The teas, hybrid teas and hybrid
perpetuals are particularly susceptible to it, while the Briars,
Rugosas and Mosses seem to be less easily affected.
While brown canker is more prone to appear on the canes,
it may also affect the leaves, blossoms and fruit. On the
canes it is manifested by patches of a common buff color
with a purplish border. Small spots of a similar color may
also appear on the leaves. Frequently the outer petals of the
bloom are covered with large circular areas which mars its
beauty. Frequently the bud fails to open.
About the only remedy employed during the past few
88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
years for this nuisance is a spray of Bordeaux mixture and
lead arsenate. This should be applied once a week. All
diseased canes should be removed and burned. Even this
treatment will not prevent the disease from returning on the
following season. I believe that when a plant becomes in-
fected with brown canker every bit of the old wood should
be cut down to the ground. Mildew is perhaps the most
prevalent disease of the rose with which we have to contend,
and next to brown canker, the most destructive. While it
seldom kills the plant, as brown canker does, it interferes
greatly with its growth and flower production. It is a fungous
disease manifested by small isolated grayish spots, first on
the older leaves, then on the younger ones, and finally around
the stems below the bud or bloom where it has an appearance
Mildew is greatly influenced by atmospheric conditions,
being much more prone to appear in excessively damp
weather, and may occur at any time from June until October,
especially during the latter part of August, when the days
are warm and the nights cool. Some varieties are more sus-
ceptible to mildew than others, especially the Pernetianas.
The spores are easily carried by the wind from one plant to
another. While prevention of this disease is better than
cure, mildew can be both prevented and cured by the weekly
dusting with Massey's mixture (nine parts powdered sulphur
and one part lead arsenate). It is well to begin the treat-
ment about the first of August, unless the season is a wet one,
in which case it should be begun earlier. The best and sim-
plest way of applying this mixture is by means of the cheese
cloth bag on the end of a long pole. This method covers
the foliage with a very light, even application, and is much
quicker done than any other.
Black spot or leaf blotch, as it is sometimes called, is also
a fungous disease, appearing as black spots on the leaves,
especially those on the lower part of the bush. It is one of
the most fatal and most difficult diseases to deal with. It
occurs wherever roses are grown but it is more prevalent in
some localities than others. Some varieties are more sus-
ceptible to it than others, and here, also, the Pernetianas are
the easy victims. Black spot generally comes in the fall of
PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING 89
the year and is easily carried by the wind from one plant to
Once this disease becomes manifest it cannot be cured.
The only thing we can do is to pick off and destroy all af-
fected leaves, but if you will begin by the first of August
and continue this treatment each week, until October first,
you will surely prevent the occurrence of both mildew and
Orange rust is another fungous disease which fortunately
does not appear until late summer or autumn when the bloom-
ing period is about over. While it is not so common or
destructive as mildew or black spot, it is much more dim-
cult to combat, either by preventatives or remedial measures,
for its growth is inside of the leaves and stems. A spray of
potassium sulphide (1 oz. to 10 gal.), early in the season, may
have some influence as a preventative, but removal of af-
fected leaves and canes is the only control measure, and if
a bush is affected for two or three seasons, dig it up and
Brown canker is not a fungous disease. It occurs only in
budded or grafted stock, and is manifested as a swelling,
either just below or more often, just above the junction of
the stock and scion just below the surface of the soil. It
may be ascribed to insufficient nutrition, consequent on an
imperfect union. Too much moisture at this part is sup-
posed to play an important part in the causation. For this
reason removal of soil from the part and allowing it to dry
will often abort or cure the trouble.
Root rot is another fungous disease affecting the roots of
certain varieties, especially during the rainy seasons. The
buds are blighted just as they are about to open, then the
petals turn brown and fall off. Unfortunately, this disease
is never discovered until it is too late to save the plant, and as
no method of control or cure is known, the only thing to do
is to dry up the plant and destroy it.
A few words about the fertilization of roses may be of
some practical interest. The three principal chemical in-
gredients of a fertilizer necessary for the rose are nitrogen,
90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
which stimulates rapid growth, phosphorus, which stimu-
lates and gives color to the bloom, and potassium, which
produces stronger stems and better foliage. All three of
these elements are contained in a well rotted horse or cow
manure, or in a mixture of sheep phosphate, bone meal and
Each season, just as soon as I unhill my roses in the
early spring I spread a good trowelful of a mixture con-
taining one part of slacked lime, and two parts each of sheep
phosphate, bone meal and wood ash, around each plant. This
is all the fertilizer I put on my bushes during the whole sea-
son, excepting the well rotted cow manure, which I put on
the beds, filling the depressions made by removal of dirt
during the hilling up of my roses in the late fall or winter.
In the spring, when I unhill, I leave this manure on, cover-
ing it with the dirt I take from the bushes. "With this treat-
ment I omit the usual application of liquid manure during
the budding season, for I believe there is just as much danger
of overfeeding as there is of underfeeding.
Pruning of roses is always preferable in the early spring,
just as soon as the frost is out of the ground and the canes
begin to turn green. Pruning consists of cutting out all
dead wood, most of the old wood, the superfluous canes,
thinning out the center and improving the shape of the
plant. If most varieties of rose bushes were not pruned,
the blooms would be on the top branches only and would
be of very inferior quality.
There are two methods of pruning : First, pruning for
quantity of bloom, where we cut the canes down to within
six or eight eyes from the parent shoot, and second, pruning
for quality of bloom, where we cut them down to within
from two to four eyes. The cutting of blooms, if properly
done, is a method of pruning which will be beneficial to the
plant and assures a larger crop on the same cane later. Cut
long stems, just above the third or fourth leaf below the
bloom. If this is done, you are pretty sure to get another
flowering shoot on the same cane later.
PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING 91
The method of winter protection of roses depends upon
the locality, the exposure, and the variety. For most or-
dinary varieties, with the exception of the teas, all that is
necessary in central New York, is to hill the bushes up well
in the late fall, after we have had two or three severe frosts,
and the wood has become well seasoned; then fill the depres-
sions made between the bushes by the removal of dirt, with
plenty of well rotted manure. The more tender roses should
be covered with a box after the hilling, but be sure not to
have too tight a box which will prevent proper ventilation,
else your bushes will become mouldy.
Climbers are generally just tied up and laid down on the
ground to be covered with the winter's snow, which is one
of the very best protections against the extreme cold.
Propagation of Roses
Before closing I might say a few words about the propaga-
tion of roses. The so-called own-root roses are obtained by
slips, layering or pollination. For slipping, cuttings are
made from a bush, usually selecting branches which have
just bloomed. Cut them off just above the top leaves, and
after removing all but the two top leaves, stick them into the
sand to a depth of several inches, and cover with glass, oc-
casionally wetting the sand.
Layering consists of taking one of the lower branches of
the bush, cutting a notch in the under side, bending and
pegging it down, so that it will stay; then cover the cut
portion with the soil which is kept moist. Roots will develop
at this point, after which it can be removed from the parent
bush and potted.
Pollination, which is a much more difficult procedure, is
hardly a practical method of propagation for the amateur.
It consists of removing the petals from the flower of one
plant and then shaking the pollen from the flower of another
plant on to its stamens, after which the pollinized flower is
protected from the wind and bees, by covering it with a
small paper bag. When the seeds are ripened, they are re-
moved and given a thorough soaking in water before being
92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
As budded roses are by far the most in demand, the
budding process of propagation is the one most generally
carried out by the majority of our growers. This consists of
cutting a T-shaped slit in the bark on the collar of some wild
rose, such as the Multiflora, and then inserting a bud from
the bush of the variety you desire to propagate, after which
it is tied securely in place by raffia.
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower
The Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and. Flower Mission de-
sires to express its appreciation to the Trustees of the Massa-
chusetts Horticultural Society for their continued co-opera-
tion in the work of the Mission during 1927.
The past summer has undoubtedly been the busiest sum-
mer we have experienced, in spite of the late and stormy
Two hundred and sixty -seven hampers were received during
the eighteen weeks of the hamper work and over 4000 bouquets
were sent out from our four distributing centres, as well as
fruits, vegetables and "goodies." These hampers are packed
by individuals, garden clubs, federations of churches, Lend-
a-Hand clubs and other societies in the different communi-
The booths at the North Station and the South Station
were opened as usual on June 1 and closed on October 1,
1927. Welfare agencies and hospitals called regularly at
these booths each morning at 12 o'clock for the contributions
left by commuters.
The response at Horticultural Hall has been generous.
To our headquarters in the basement have come contribu-
tions of flowers, fruits and vegetables from individuals;
from the growers of New England through the salesmen of
the Boston Flower Exchange; from debutante affairs and
weddings; and from the funerals of some of our noted citi-
zens. Through the courtesy of Mayor Nichols, all of the
pansy plants from the Public Gardens were sent to us when
the beds were made ready for the summer. At Thanksgiving
and at Christmas our room was filled with the donations
received from interested friends.
It would be impossible to handle this phase of the Fruit
and Flower Mission work, except for the space afforded by
The exhibits after the flower shows are distributed by a
94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
large number of our list of 79 volunteers, some of whom fur-
nish automobiles for the distribution.
Thus through the year many thousands of patients in
hospital wards, in our veterans' hospitals, in children's in-
stitutions, in homes for the aged, in clinics, and so many
lonely and sick shut-ins, are cheered because of the Benev-
olent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission, in which work
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society plays an important
Emily I. Elliott,
Boston, Mass. Executive Secretary.
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
PRESENTED AT THE
ANNUAL MEETING JANUARY 9, 1928
LIST OF THE NEW MEMBERS
The inaugural meeting for 1928 was held at Horticultural
Hall at 3 P. M. Monday, January 9, with a large attendance.
In the absence of the President, Mr. Albert C. Burrage, who
was abroad, the chair was occupied by Mr. Nathaniel T.
Kidder, a former president.
The Secretary read the call, and the rest of the meeting
was given to the reading of a letter from the President and
the reports of the officers and committees as follows :
The President's Letter
To the Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural So-
ciety : — I am compelled to take a brief vacation in a sunnier
clime and am leaving for Egypt on January 4th, so that
I cannot be present at the first meeting of the Society which
comes on January 9, 1928, which I greatly regret as I should
like to add my w T ords to those of the other officers of the
Society, who will give you full reports for the past year.
They will furnish you, better than I can, the exact figures
relating to the various activities of the Society; and these
will, I am sure, satisfy everyone as to the steady, stable
progress which is being made in every way, — in membership,
in the circulation of Horticulture, in attendance at the ex-
hibitions, in the use of the library, in consultation work, and
in the increase of income.
The Trustees of the Society do not now feel any necessity
for drives or campaigns for this Society, for funds, or mem-
bership, or magazine circulation; they believe in continuous
growth as being the soundest. They believe in exercising
a wider influence, but not if obtained at too great a cost.
The Trustees are mindful that the Society, founded in
1829, has been in continued existence since that time and
that it has exerted a great and helpful influence upon the
community in which it exists, and they believe that this life
and this influence should be commemorated in suitable ways
when the Centennial shall have been reached. They are
actively engaged in this matter; committees have been ap-
98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
pointed and it is expected that announcements will be made
in the near future as to these celebrations.
It is fitting at this time to ask each member to do what
he can to help in this undertaking. It is not likely that
any general demand will be made for funds but it is likely
that some will be asked to make special contributions of
materials or awards.
Albert C. Burrage, President.
Report of The Secretary
If the progress of an organization is to be measured by
the increase in membership, the year 1927 was a particularly
successful one for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
During the twelve months, 1084 new names were added to
the rolls. This was the largest increase in any one year in
the history of the Society. The total membership at the end
of the year was 4,037. Among the new members were 19
life members. It is a matter of regret, however, that the
number of life members actually dropped during the year,
there having been 28 deaths among them. The total losses
from death and resignations for the year were 212. The
percentage of withdrawals was surprisingly small.
The deaths for the year included that of Prof. Charles S.
Sargent, director of the Arnold Arboretum and for many
years one of the most active and valued of the Trustees.
Prof. Sargent's passing came as a severe blow to the Board
of Trustees and to the Society as a whole. His work in
behalf of the Society was eloquently summed up by Mr.
"William C. Endicott at a memorial service held in the Ar-
boretum in June. At the Annual Meeting of the Society,
the vacancy caused by Professor Sargent's death was filled
by the election of Mr. Oakes Ames to the office of vice presi-
dent. Another new Trustee was added to the Board by the
election of Mr. Robert C. Morse, who has been an active
exhibitor for several years.
Early in the year Mr. E. H. Wilson, one of the Trustees,
conducted a series of Monday morning classes in the lower
lecture hall which proved a remarkable success. The total
attendance at these classes was 1060, and so much interest
INAUGURAL MEETING 99
was aroused that 259 books were given out in the library,
while 30 new members joined in order to attend the lectures,
which were free to members. This course was so successful
that something along similar lines will probably be at-
tempted in 1928.
In the course of the year an important alteration was made
on the mezzanine floor, the division wall being removed and
the document room transferred to the floor above. As a
result of this change, much additional space on the mez-
zanine floor has been made available for exhibition purposes
and meetings. Easy chairs and tables have also been pro-
vided, making a pleasant and comfortable rest room.
At a meeting of the Trustees in January, 1927, the George
Robert White Medal of Honor was awarded to Professor
Liberty Hyde Bailey, of Ithaca, N. Y. At a later meeting
the new Thomas Roland Medal was awarded to Mr. Roland
himself, and the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal was
awarded for the first time, going to Lambertus C. Bobbink,
for his skill in propagating hard wood plants.
At the September meeting of the Trustees definite action
was taken in preparation for the centennial celebration of
the Society in 1929, a committee being appointed to consist
of the President and all living ex-Presidents.
The Committee on Gardens was particularly active in
1927, visiting gardens in many parts of the state. The
awards which were announced at the October meeting of
the Trustees were as follows :
A large Gold Medal to Frederick S. Moseley, for an estate
of superior merit.
A Silver Medal to Mrs. Louis A. Frothingham for a Rose
garden of superior merit.
A Silver Medal to Dr. Frederick C. Shattuck for a garden
of unusual character.
A Bronze Medal to Mrs. Isaac Sprague for a rock garden
of superior merit.
A Bronze Medal to Mrs, J. C. Wardwell for a walled
garden of superior merit.
A Garden Certificate to Mrs. Churchill for semi-formal and
wild garden of superior merit.
100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
A Garden Certificate to Mrs. George Phillips for a home
garden of superior merit.
At the same meeting a vote was passed instructing the
secretary to have uniform coats made for the janitor and his
At the December meeting a special committee appointed
to consider the awards of the Society's medals to other
organizations reported as follows :
"We approve the custom of offering medals, unsolicited, to
various horticultural organizations, but we advise that not
more than five gold medals and not more than ten silver
medals be awarded in any one year.
"We believe that the widest possible distribution of these
medals is for the best interests of the Society ."
At the annual meeting a large number of amendments to
the By-Laws were adopted in order to make the By-Laws
conform with present practices. These By-Laws are now be-
ing reprinted. Because of the expense involved, they will
not be distributed broadcast, but will be sent to any member
who makes application to the Secretary.
Miss Helen M. Murdoch gave the Society a large collection
of autochrome photographs of exhibitions and gardens,
which have been on display in the library and much appre-
ciated by the members.
There has been a marked falling off in rentals, due largely
to the competition of the Statler Hotel and other new halls.
This competition is likely to become even more acute.
Perhaps attention should be called to the extent to which
Horticultural Hall is coming to be used as a meeting place
for horticultural organizations of many kinds. Among such
organizations now holding meetings here are the following :
National Gardeners Association
Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston
Massachusetts Federation of Garden Clubs
New England Greenkeepers' Association
Boston Mycological Society
Dahlia Society of New England
New England Gladiolus Society
Benevolent Fruit and Flower Mission.
Exhibit of the Noanett Garden Club, Awarded the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society's Gold Medal
102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
In closing this report, the Secretary wishes to express his
appreciation of the courtesy and good will extended to him
by the Trustees and the members of the Society throughout
Report of the Treasurer
Income from Investments and Bank Interest $25,723 23
" " Rents " 8,820 56
" " Membership Fees 6,366 00
" " Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 2,878 63
" " Exhibitions 12,124 00
" Library Catalogue 15 00
" " Donations 116 00
" Lecture Tickets 36 50
" " Incidentals 1,021 90
Donations to Plants and Flower Prizes 85 00
" " Fruit Prizes 50 00
" " Medals 120 00
Returned from Horticulture 2,000 00
Returned to Funds 93 00 $59,449 82
Operating Expense $44,711 45
Viz: Labor $8,159 43
Salaries 12,523 74
Lighting 2,664 65
Heating 1,531 16
Incidentals 9,622 61
Stationery and Printing 3,700 33
Repairs 4,035 07
Library 845 11
Insurance 1,629 35
Prizes $ 3,706 25
Viz: Plants and Flowers in excess of
income from special funds . . . $2,910 75
Fruits in excess of income from
special funds 62 00
INAUGURAL MEETING 103
Vegetables in excess of income
from special funds $ 347 00
Children's Gardens 386 50
Expenditures by Committees $ 2,784 74
Viz : Lectures and Publications $ 503 21
Medals 1,836 53
Plants and Flowers 240 00
Fruits 100 00
Vegetables 105 00
Expenses Paid from Funds $ 2,301 23
Viz: John D. W. French Fund $ 418 65
John S. Farlow Fund 92 70
John C. Chaffin Fund 87 00
Benjamin V. French Fund 146 00
John Allen French Fund 238 00
Samuel Appleton Fund 18 00
John A. Lowell Fund 21 00
Josiah Bradlee Fund 9 00
Henry A. Gane Fund 35 00
Theodore Lyman Fund 558 00
H. H. Hunnewell Fund ... 100 00
William J. Walker Fund 71 00
Levi Whitcomb Fund 15 00
Benjamin B. Davis Fund 6 00
Marshall P. Wilder Fund 48 00
George R. White Fund 296 57
John S. Farlow, Newton Hort.
Society 74 00
Jackson Dawson Fund 67 31
Subscriptions to Horticulture $ 2,850 00
Miscellaneous 350 00
Total Expenditures $56,703 67
Excess of Income over Expenditures 2,746 15 $59,449 82
December 31, 1927
Life Members, December 31, 1926 838
Added in 1927 15
104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Changed from annual
Deceased 28 829
Annual Members, December 31, 1926 2,549
Added in 1927 1,084
Changed to Life 4
Resigned and Discontinued 162 188
Holding for dues 236 3,209
Membership, December 31, 1927 4,038
Life Membership Fees
15 New Life Members at $50 $ 750.00
4 Annual Members changed to Life 200.00
Income from Membership
1084 New Annual Members at $2 $2,168.00
Annual Members Dues 4,114.00
Annual Dues Paid in Advance 84.00
List of Bonds and Stocks Held by the Massachusetts
$11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. Co. 5% Bonds, 1956 $ 9,933 75
25,000 Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis R. R. Co. 6%
Bonds, 1928 25,000 00
50,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. 111. Div. 3y 2 %
Bonds, 1949 50,000 00
8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. 4%% Bonds, 1944 8,000 00
4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit 5% Bonds, 1966 3,920 00
4,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Conv. 4%
Bonds, 1936 4,000 00
20,000 Atlantic Refining Co. 5% Bonds, 1937 19,940 00
10,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Conv. 4^%
Bonds, 1933 8,396 00
INAUGURAL MEETING 105
12,000 Pacific Telephone Co. 5% Bonds, 1937 $11,670 00
10,000 New York Central R. R. Co. 5% Bonds, 2013 9,950 00
11,000 Consolidated Electric Co. Gen'l Mtge. 5% Bonds,
1955 10,010 00
11,000 Ohio Power Co. 1st & Ref. Mtge. 6% Bonds, 1953. . . . 10,835 00
5,000 United States Steel Corp. 5% Bonds, 1963 5,043 75
10,000 Southern California Telephone Co. 5% Bonds, 1947. . 9,550 00
5,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Co. 5% Bonds, 1946 4,973 75
3,000 Chicago Junction Rys. & Union Stock Yards Co. 5%
Bonds, 1940 2,824 50
5,000 New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. 5% Bonds,
1952 4,982 50
5,000 Western Union Telegraph Co. 5% Bonds, 1938 4,982 50
13,000 Southern Public Utilties 5% Bonds, 1933 11,862 50
5,000 Western Electric Co. 5% Bonds, 1944 4,825 00
15,000 Yadkin River Power Co. 5% Bonds, 1941 15,077 50
3,000 Philadelphia Suburban Water Co. 5% Bonds, 1955. . . 2,955 00
10,000 New Jersey Power & Light Co. 5% Bonds, 1956 9,950 00
15,000 Indianapolis Gas Co. 5% Bonds, 1952 14,775 00
15,000 Fisk Rubber Co. 5y 2 % Notes, 1931 14,737 50
15,000 Columbus Electric & Power Co. 5% Bonds, 1954 14,700 00
10,000 Puget Sound Power & Light Co. 5% Bonds, 1949. . . . 10,150 00
20,000 Portland Gas & Coke Co. 5% Bonds, 1940 19,900 00
6,000 Commonwealth Edison Co. Coll. 4%% Bonds, 1956.. 5,745 00
25,000 State of New South Wales 5% Bonds, 1957 24,062 50
5,000 Utah Power & Light Co. 1st Mtge. 5% Bonds, 1944. . . 4,900 00
15,000 Georgia Power Co. 1st & Ref. 5% Bonds, 1967 14,550 00
10,000 Public Utilities Corp. 5y 2 % Bonds, 1947 9,925 00
15,000 Railway & Light Securities 5% Bonds, 1951 14,587 50
7,000 Shell Pipe Line Corp. Deb. 5% Bonds, 1952 6,860 00
548 Shs. General Electric Co. Common
726 " General Electric Co. Special
137 " Electric Bond & Share Securities Corp. Common
500 " Consolidated Gas Co. of New York, Preferred 46,480 00
Receipts and Disbursements Year 1927
Advertising $22,331 47
Subscriptions 9,893 69
106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Books $319 59
Miscellaneous 170 94
Printing $14,723 11
Paper 5,903 37
Books 200 05
Postage 716 15
Cuts 1,070 76
Commissions and Discounts 5,284 32
Subscriptions Returned to Horticultural Society 2,000 00
Wrappers 203 82
Subscriptions Returned 38 00
Miscellaneous 1,478 92
Surplus of Receipts over Expenses 1,097 19
John S. Ames,
Report of the Committee on the Library
The death of Professor Sargent, after a chairmanship of
twenty-three years, has made this a year of transition and
readjustment. The new committee held their first meeting
in May and have met monthly since September.
The use made of the library is still increasing, and with
a growing membership and an active Society this is what we
should expect. Those who live near enough to do so, visit
the library in greater numbers, no doubt encouraged in some
cases by the elevator. These visitors and an additional large
number who borrow by mail have taken out 2653 books for
home use — 699 more than a year ago.
"While we need not expect every member of the Society
to be a constant user of the library, we should like to see still
more taking advantage of the opportunity. Regardless of
place of residence, every member may borrow for home use
INAUGURAL MEETING 107
the books generally needed by the average amateur or pro-
fessional. Those who live near enough are urged to visit
the library and to select their books in person, but all mem-
bers may have books mailed to them. Those who have prob-
lems to solve are welcomed, and are promised information to
the full extent of the library's resources.
The physical equipment of the library has been improved
by the construction of nine additional ranges of shelving in
the stack, giving an increased capacity of seven hundred
In January, a leaflet of revised library rules and general
information was sent to all the members and the same leaf-
let goes to each new member with his membership card.
Everyone, consequently, has in his possession all the essen-
tial information about the library and how to use it. Two
talks have been given in the library this year, one by the
Librarian on "How to use the library," the other by Miss
Tucker, the Librarian of the Arnold Arboretum, on "The
lure of gardening as expressed by its literature." The li-
brary has contributed to Horticulture regular information
about new books added to the collection, and has often made
up reading lists on current topics both for the magazine and
The year 1927 has been conspicuous for the number of
contacts with outside institutions, actual requests for in-
formation or assistance as distinguished from simple ex-
change of publications. No less than thirty such organiza-
tions have given us help or asked help from us. They have
included a bookshop, a bank, several public libraries, agri-
cultural experiment stations and other organizations de-
voted to practical plant growing, and schools of Landscape
Architecture. Geographically they have been scattered
from California and South Dakota to our neighbors in
Copley Square, the Boston Public Library. The newly
aroused enthusiasm for garden clubs in Massachusetts has
made itself evident in requests for literature helpful in or-
ganizing such clubs and for advice in forming club libraries.
The reputation of our Society in the horticultural world
is well known. That the library itself occupies an enviable
position may perhaps be news to some people. We are for-
108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
tunate in the possession of the largest and most complete
library of its kind in this country, and one which ranks high
among the horticultural libraries of the world. To meet
present day needs, we have the best of current books and
magazines, while the scientific importance of the collection
is founded on many volumes famous for their beauty, their
rarity, or their importance in the history of plant culture.
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Chairman.
Report of the Committee on Lectures, and Publications
Nine lectures at a total cost of $503.21 were delivered be-
fore members of the Society during the year 1927 ;
The Lure of Gardening, as Expressed by its Literature (In
the Library), by Miss Ethelyn M. Tucker, of the Arnold Ar-
boretum, April 1, 1927.
Rock Gardens, by Carl Stanton, Peterborough, N. H.,
April 2, 1927.
Flower Arrangement, by B. F. Letson, Boston, Mass., April 3,
Lawns and Their Care, by Professor L. S. Dickinson, Am-
herst, Mass., June 4 and 5, 1927.
Seeds Bewitched, by Herbert W. Faulkner, Washington,
Conn., June 18 and 19, 1927.
Practical Rose Growing Illustrated, by Dr. G. Griffin Lewis,
Syracuse, N. Y., June 25, 1927.
The Rose Gardens of the World, by Dr. G. Griffin Lewis,
Syracuse, N. Y., June 26, 1927.
New England Birds and Wild Flowers, by Mrs. Harriet W.
Goode, Sharon, Mass., August 27 and 28, 1927.
Gardens of Europe and America, by Miss Frances B. John-
son, Washington, D. C, December 13, 1927.
All the lectures were well attended, that by Miss Frances
B. Johnson on "The Gardens of Europe and America" being
noteworthy on account of her slides and the wonderful
photographs illustrating her subject that were exhibited.
In March the fourth "Year Book" of the Society was
issued, In this appears details concerning the principal
activities of the Society for the year.
Horticulture Illustrated has had another successful year.
On January 1st, 1927, the paid circulation was 10,982. To-
day the circulation is 13,200. With the exception of the
state of New Mexico the paper circulates in every state in
INAUGURAL MEETING 109
the Union as well as Canada and most of the European coun-
tries. The volume of advertising carried during the year
amounted to $22,331.41 as against $17,036.37 in 1926, being
an increase of $5,295.04. The total receipts for the year
amounted to $34,788.07. The expenses were $29,618.50, leav-
ing a cash balance of $5,169.57. At the last meeting of the
Trustees the Committee on Lectures and Publications were
able to transfer to the Society $2,000, leaving Horticulture
with a cash balance of $3,169.57.
Members will note that further progress is being made
towards a cover for Horticulture Illustrated. "We are also
making a further effort to improve the appearance of the
magazine by using a higher grade paper in order that the
illustrations may be reproduced to better effect. Last year
this committee pointed out that the subscription rate of one
dollar per year to the general public was ridiculously low ;
we would reiterate this comment. That Horticulture has
had a successful year is again due mainly to the devoted
labor of our editor and secretary, Mr. B. I. Farrington.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
Report of the Exhibition Committee
The following exhibitions were held during the year 1927 :
March 30 to April 3.
Grand Spring exhibition of plants and flowers.
June 4 and 5.
Rhododendrons, Azaleas and Irises.
June 18 and 19.
Paeonies, Roses, Sweet Peas and Strawberries.
August 20 and 21.
September 10 and 11.
110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
October 28 to 30.
Grand Autumn Exhibition of fruits, flowers and vegetables.
Looking back three years we find the total attendance for
all exhibitions (excepting that of the children's gardens, for
which records were not kept) to be as follows:
These figures show a steady increase from year to year and
the records show that many more people go to the Spring show
than to any other, despite the fact that this is the only show
to which admission is charged.
It was in 1926 that the Society's Trustees voted to charge
admission to the Spring show, which for several years had
been free, like all the others. As a result of this change in
policy the Society received $9,206.00; while in 1927 the re-
ceipts were $12,071.00. Here is a total for two years of over
$21,000.00, and a net result figuring far better as regards
the total income of the organization than some thought could
be achieved. One might say that the Spring show represents
a principal or capital sum of about $200,000.00, though with
some expenses to be deducted. These expenses would not be in-
curred, or could not be afforded, were the show a free show,
but made the exhibition better as well as better attended.
The Spring exhibition is free to members of the Society
and at certain hours it is free to school children. It seems,
therefore, fair to assume that the greater part of these large
receipts has come from those accustomed to paying larger ad-
mission fees, such as theatres, concerts or lectures may charge.
All flower shows are very expensive, both to exhibitors and
to the Society, and it would appear that the cost of admission
really is very low.
We are again fortunate in having the services of Mr. Ches-
ter I. Campbell and his efficient organization to manage the
publicity for the Spring show. The results are evidence that
his work was successful and satisfactory. It is the unani-
mous opinion of this Committee that exhibitions with an en-
trance fee are able to appeal to more people, and attract them,
who are really interested in gardening and the Society's activi-
INAUGURAL MEETING 111
ties, than can free shows. During last Spring's exhibition
155 new members were made, besides 25 subscriptions to
"Horticulture" and 28 gardening books sold. There was
also additional use of the Library.
Admission will be charged to the coming Spring exhibition,
to be held next March. The Exhibition Committee appeals for
a continuance of the same generous support and helpful co-
operation that has brought success on previous occasions.
Without this your Committee will indeed be helpless.
All of last year's shows were interesting and important but
of course it was to be expected that the Spring and Fall dis-
plays were the most outstanding. Probably they compare fa-
vorably with any held in recent years. The attendance for
these shows surpasses that at the Summer shows. Most of the
plants and flowers in these two larger shows are grown under
glass where conditions are more or less under control; while
for the Summer shows most of the material is from out of
doors where little control is possible. This leads to consid-
erable instability and misunderstanding, for crop maturities
can not be dated accurately so long in advance as is necessary
in setting the times for these exhibitions.
Not many years ago the Society was almost the only one
in this country giving horticultural shows. Due to its great
work, now covering a period of one hundred years, there are
numerous displays, large and small, throughout the state —
with an influence extending into other states. Has the time
arrived for this Society to give fewer Summer shows? Can
its great resources be of greater value and service if used
more in other educational directions. This might mean send-
ing out lecturers and instructors, broadcasting horticultural
information, assisting garden clubs, and pointing the way
toward better horticulture wherever and whenever guidance
was useful. New England is considered by many America's
Summer playground and our Society can go far and appropri-
ately to make Massachusetts the most beautiful Summer flower
garden in America, and to give it properly experienced
Your Exhibition Committee acknowledges the great assistance
of the owners of private estates, who through their generosity
and public spirit, even throughout the long life of the Society,
Regal Lilies Exhibited by Mrs. Bayard Thayer at the
Spring Flower Show
INAUGURAL MEETING 113
have been always ready and willing to share with others the
products of their gardens. The Massachusetts Garden Clubs,
with Mrs. S. P. Wigglesworth as general Chairman, were again
a very important factor in the success of the Spring Exhibi-
tion. Much additional space has been granted to this group,
in which to stage and present their unique exhibits.
At the Fall show the New England Wild Flower Preserva-
tion Society, of which Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby is chairman, ar-
ranged a very large educational exhibit which attracted much
attention. It made a strong appeal and doubtless gained ad-
herents to the large group interested in the preservation of
wild plants. With the reaching afield of the automobile the
need for this attention is becoming more evident.
The work of your Committee has been made pleasant and al-
most easy by the hearty and willing cooperation it has re-
ceived, and for which we sincerely expressed our thanks.
Thomas Roland, Chairman.
Report of the Committee on Prizes
The premium list offered by the Society in its schedule for
the year 1927 totaled $7,135.25. The total awards including
gratuities of $208.00 amounted to $4,878.00, leaving a bal-
ance of $2,257.25. (The complete list of awards is given on
another page in this "Year Book.")
During the year eight exhibitions were held, one of which
as usual was devoted to the products of children's gardens.
The spring exhibition was a notable success to which the
cooperation of the garden clubs greatly aided. It will be
long remembered among other things for Mrs. A. C. Bur-
rage's remarkable Rose display at the end of the exhibition
hall. Three shows in June are too many. The quality of
the exhibits at these June exhibitions is well shown by the fact
that at the three shows only one President's Cup was awarded.
A rearrangement of the dates of these shows and the elimina-
tion of one ought to be considered. The autumn show brought
out a number of very fine exhibits of evergreens. At the
114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Gladiolus and Dahlia show, held in conjunction with the
special societies devoted to these flowers, an attempt was
made to make the individual exhibits blend into one har-
monious whole. On a whole the arrangement of the shows
continues to show improvement. The exhibits are now
staged on time for the judges to commence at one o'clock.
As to the quality of the exhibits displayed a brief comment
or two may be in order.
In general the standard of former years was easily main-
tained and in many instances exceeded. At the autumn
show there were some remarkably fine Chrysanthemums and
the exhibits of evergreens by several nurserymen were par-
ticularly noteworthy. On several occasions Orchids in rich
variety were finely exhibited; these flowers seem to be
increasing in popularity and their culture is rapidly being
It was an off season for fruit and this was reflected in the
exhibits. With the exception of a fine display of hardy
grapes at the autumn exhibition, fruit was far below the
average. The exhibit of hardy grapes arranged in such
manner as to be of educational value did great credit to
that veteran horticulturalist, Dr. Walter G-. Kendall.
There were one or two good exhibits staged, but on the
whole the vegetables displayed were far from creditable.
It is time this important subject received more attention at
the hands of gardeners and exhibitors than it does at the
present moment. It is true that the Dowse Memorial Cup
was awarded and that a splendidly staged exhibit of fruit
and vegetables from Mrs. Moses Taylor, Newport, Rhode
Island, was awarded the President's Cup, but these excep-
tions only served to show the inferior quality of vegetable
exhibits on the whole.
The judges again fulfilled their onerous duties to the
satisfaction of all concerned and to the Committee on Prizes
Exhibit of the Chestnut Hill Garden Club, Awarded the
Medal of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society
116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
it is a pleasant duty to place on record appreciation of the
spirit of fairness, sound judgment and harmonious working
of the Judges of Flowers, Fruit, and Vegetables throughout
E. H. Wilson, Chairman.
Committee on the Products of Children's Gardens
The exhibition of the products of children's gardens was
well attended. In spite of the heavy rain of the previous
day the children brought in many flowers which were fresh
and well arranged, also choice vegetables from their gardens.
Their display was a good one. The extra space given by
the opening of the smaller hall made it much easier for the
judges, as the displays were better classified and arranged.
Mrs. Harriet Upham Goode held the interest of the boys
and girls in her talk to them about birds and flowers in the
afternoon of the opening day of the show.
I feel that I owe much to the different judges who helped
us through the day, and especially to Mr. O'Brien, whose
interest in the matter is unfailing, and to Miss Delia I.
Griffin, who came from Hartford, Conn., for the occasion.
Marian Roby Case, Chairman.
Membership in the Massachusetts
The constitution of the Massachusetts Horticultural So-
ciety fixes the annual dues at $2.00. For many years it
was customary to charge an admission fee of $10.00, but by
vote of the Trustees this requirement has been set aside for
the entire year of 1928. Until the end of this year the only
charge to new members will be $2.00, although this sum does
not cover the cost to the Society of the publications which
they will receive.
Life membership is obtained by paying the sum of $50.00,
no further charge ever being required. Annual members
who have paid the entrance fee of $10.00 in past years may
become life members by paying $40.00 additional.
All members receive an identification card, which should
be presented when books are borrowed from the library.
Any man or woman in any part of the country who is
properly endorsed may make application for membership.
New members are needed in order to increase the influence of
the Society, and to broaden the scope of its work.
Application blanks may be obtained by writing to
NOTE : — The secretary is glad to have present members
send in the names of friends who might like to become
Members Whose Addresses Are Unknown
The Secretary has been unable to locate the life members of
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society whose names are
listed below. He does not know whether they are still living
or have passed away. Any information about any of them
will be greatly appreciated.
Agassiz, Mrs. George R.
Arnold, Mrs. George Francis
Backer, Clarence A.
Barry, John Marshall
Briggs, Wm. S.
Burnham, Miss Helen C.
Cox, Simon F.
Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S.
Dexter, George T.
Fraser, Charles E. K.
Frost, Irving B.
Gardner, William Amory
Hale, Mrs. Swinburne
Hall, Jackson E.
Harris, Rev. Thaddeus Wil-
Hastings, Levi W.
Jeffries, John, 5th
Kendall, Joseph R.
Kirkland, Archie Howard
Lawrence, Amos A.
Leighton, George B.
Luke, Otis H.
Maxwell, George H.
Morgan, George H.
Morton, James H.
60 Davis Ave., Brookline.
53 State St., Boston
595 Shirley St., Winthrop
57 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
42 Langdon St., Cambridge
249 River St., Mattapan
111 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
66 Beacon St., Boston
Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.
339 Washington St., Roxbury
New York City
22 Congress St., Boston
8 East 8th St., New York
423 Green St., Cambridge
Littleton, N. H.
Clyde St., Brookline
3601 Walnut St., Philadelphia,
San Francisco, Calif.
59 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
Monadnock, N. H.
Brush Hill Road, Readville
Pond St., Jamaica Plain
Greenwood Land, Waltham
Huntington, L. I., N. Y.
MEMBERS WHOSE ADDRESSES ARE UNKNOWN
Newton, Rev. William W.
Norman, Mrs. Guy
Norton, Charles W.
Rawson, Herbert W.
Roberts, Miss Anna B.
Swett, Raymond W.
West, Mrs. Maria L.
White, Mrs. Charles T.
55 Marion St., Brookline
47 Beacon St., Boston
213 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
The following is a list of the members of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society whose deaths were reported during the
Dr. William Sturgis Bigelow Thomas Hawken
William C. Brewer
Mrs. Henry F. Bryant
Alfred M. Bullard
J. Thomas Butterworth
S. I. Carpenter
Miss Grace Cook
William M. Cotton
Mrs. Agnes G. Curtis
Leonard F. Cutter
Dr. Edwin A. Daniels
Clarence H. Denny
Mrs. Christopher R. Eliot
Mrs. William C. Endicott
Dr. Erica Erikson
Mrs. William G. Farlow
Austin F. Faulkner
Lucian J. Fosdick
Mrs. C. H. W. Foster
Robert H. Gardiner
William A. Gaston
Miss Virginia Hall
Miss Kate Horsf ord
Edward C. Johnson
Rev. Thatcher R. Kimball
Mrs. Arthur M. Milliken
Alexander Montgomery, Jr.
Mrs. Edward A. Newell
Walter M. Parker
Dr. Hose a M. Quinby
Miss Ruth G. Rich
Edward W. Sanborn
Charles Sprague Sargent
Charles S. Smith
Dr. Henry R. Stedman
Charles W. Stone
Nathaniel H. Stone
Everell F. Sweet
Mrs. Russell Tyson
Mrs. Frank V. Thompson
Everett P. Wheeler
Miss Adelia Coffin Williams
Corresponding Member, John Dunbar
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
1900 Dr. Henry S. Prichett, New York.
1925 D. M. Andrews, Boulder, Colorado.
1925 Rudolph D. Anstead, Director of the Agricultural College,
1921 J. F. Bailey, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, South
1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y.
1925 F. R. S. Balfour, Dawyek, Stobo, Peebleshire, Scotland.
1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Gardens, Kew, England.
1918 Desire Bois, Paris, France.
1925 James Boyd, Haverford, Pa.
1925 I. H. Burkill, F. L. S., care the Royal Gardens, Kew.
1925 G. H. Cave, Darjeeling, India.
1922 Joseph Edgar Chamberlin, Boston, Mass.
1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France.
1921 Fred J. Chittenden, Director of the Royal Horticultural
Society Gardens, Wisley, Ripley, Surrey, England.
1925 Woon Young Chun, Botanical Dept., Southeastern Univer-
sity, Nanking, China.
1921 Allister Clark, Glenara, Bulla, Victoria, Australia.
1921 Dr. Leonard Cockayne, Ngaio, Wellington, New Zealand.
1925 Henri Correvon, Geneva, Switzerland.
1925 G. W. Darnell- Smith, Director of the Sydney Botanic Gar-
dens, Sydney, New South Wales.
1925 Henry F. du Pont, Winterthur, Delaware.
1925 Pierre S. du Pont, Wilmington, Delaware.
1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Witcombe,
1918 William C. Eagan, Highland Park, 111.
1925 Charles C. Eley, M.A., F.L.S., Suffolk, England.
1925 I. B. Evans, C.M.G., Chief of Division and Director Botanical
Survey, Pretoria, South Africa.
1925 G. Frazier, Ucuelet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
1925 W. G. Freeman, B.S.C., F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Gar-
122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1900 Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing-
ton, D. C.
1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota.
1925 Miss M. C. Hastie, Magnolia Gardens, S. C.
1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, Geneva, N. Y.
1907 Dr. Augustine Henry, Dublin, Ireland.
1925 Joseph Hers, Tung Chang Hutung, Peking, China.
1925 William Hertrick, San Gabriel, California.
1925 Hermann A. Hessie, Weener, Germany.
1925 M. Robert Hickel, Versailles, France.
1925 A. H. Hill, Dundee, 111.
1925 Arthur W. Hill, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, Eng-
1925 E. G. Hill, Richmond, Ind.
1925 E. Hillier, Winchester, England.
1897 J. W. Hoffman, Orangeburg, S. C.
1925 R. E. Horsey, Rochester, N. Y.
1925 Professor H. H. Hu, national Southeastern University, Nan-
1925 Mrs. C. L. Hutchinson, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
1925 Hon. William M. Jardine, Secretary of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C.
1925 Charles W. Knight, Oakdale, N. Y.
1925 The Rt. Hon. The Lord Lambourne, P.C., C.Y.O., Y.M.H.,
President of the Royal Horticultural Society, Essex, England.
1921 C. E. Lane-Poole, Canberra, Australia.
1925 C. C. Laney, Rochester, N. Y.
1875 G. F. B. Leighton, Norfolk, Virginia.
1911 M. Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France.
1925 Gerald W. E. Loder, M.A., F.L.S., Sussex, England.
1925 Donald MacGregor, Shanghai, China.
1925 Dr. Rudolph Marloth, Capetown, South Africa.
1925 Sir J. S. Maxwell, Pollokshaws, Scotland.
1925 The Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert E. Maxwell, Bart., F.R.S., D.C.L.,
Wigtownshire, North Britain.
1875 F. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y.
1925 John McLaren, San Francisco, California.
1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa.
1925 Mrs. William Mercer, Doylestown, Pa.
1911 Wilhelm Miller, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
1925 Rev. E. M. Mills, D.D., Laguna Beach, California.
MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 123
1925 Dr. Kingo Miyabe, Director of the Botanic Garden, Sapporo,
1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland.
1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, Mo.
1925 F. Cleveland Morgan, Montreal, Canada.
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., 14 Crabton Close, Boscombe,
1925 Mr. Joy Morton, Chicago, Illinois.
1919 M. Seraphin Joseph Mottet, Verrieres-le-Buisson (Seine-et-
1925 F. R. Newbold, New York, N. Y.
1925 M. L. Parde, Nogent-sur-Vernisson (Loiret), France.
1925 Monsieur Jules Pernet-Ducher, Venissieux-les-L y o n s
1906 Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, Warlingham, Surrey, England.
1925 Miss Isabel Preston, Ottawa, Canada.
1925 Johannes Rafn, Skovfrokontoret, Copenhagen, Denmark.
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Raguso, Palermo, Sicily.
1925 Dr. Robert Ridgway, Olney, Illinois.
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, care Royal Gardens, Kew.
1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray
Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge.
1875 William Robinson, East Grinstead, Sussex, England.
1921 L. Rod way, C. M. G., Government Botanist and Secretary, Bot-
anic Gardens, Hobart, Tasmania.
1899 William Salway, Cincinnati, Ohio.
1925 Camillo Schneider, Charlottenburg, Germany.
1925 F. L. Skinner, Dropmore, Manitoba.
1925 Professor William Wright Smith, Royal Botanic Gardens,
1925 Dr. H. Spaeth, Berlin-Baumschulenweg, Germany.
1925 Dr. Otto Stapf, London, England.
1921 David Tannock, Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Dunedin,
1893 Professor William Trelease, Urbana, 111.
1921 M. Jacques de Vilmorin, Paris, France.
1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amster-
1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England.
1925 Cyril T. White, Government Botanist, Brisbane, Queensland,
1919 J. C. Williams, Gorran, Cornwall, England.
124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1906 Miss Ellen Willmott, Great War ley, Essex, England.
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1921 Gurney Wilson, Richmond, Surrey, England.
1925 John C. Wister, Germantown, Pa.
1901 Professor L. W^ittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian
Horticultural Society, Berlin.
1925 Major A. C. T. Woodward, Bewdley, Worcestershire, England.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927
Abbott, Mrs. Chester G., Jamaica Plain.
Abbott, Mrs. Edville G., Portland,
Abbott, Miss Elizabeth T., Cambridge.
Abbott, Mrs. Harlan P., Brookline.
Abbott, Mr. Holker, Wellesley Hills.
Adams, Elmer S., Stoughton.
Adams, Mrs. Grace C, Dedham.
Adams, Mrs. Walter 0., Annisquam.
Agassiz, Mrs. R. L., Hamilton.
Albro, Mrs. Frank T., Fall River.
Alexander, Mrs. J. P., Newton High-
Alford, Mrs. Edward B., Brookline.
Alger, N. Alonzo, South Easton.
Allanach, Miss Edith, Marion.
Allen, Mrs. Bernard M., Cheshire, Conn.
Allen, Miss Caroline K., Jamaica Plain.
Allen, Mr. J. Walter, Newtonville.
Allen, Mrs. Robert C, Worcester.
Ailing, Mrs. A. N., New Haven, Ct.
Ames, Rev. Charles B., Groton.
Ames, Mrs. Robert R., Wayland.
Ammann, Miss Marguerite, Maiden.
Anderson, Adolph, Campello.
Anderson, Mr. Carl G., Cape Elizabeth,
Anderson, Mrs. Emil K., Arlington.
Anthony, Mrs. Charles W., Atlantic.
Anthony, Mrs. Harold H., South Swan-
Appleton, Mrs. Alice K., Haverhill.
Appleton, Charles A., North Andover.
Appleton, Mrs. W. Cornell, Newton
Aran, Miss Teresa F., Camden, Maine.
Armstrong, Mr. Joseph, West Somer-
Atkins, Mrs. Edwin F., Belmont.
Attwill, Mrs. Augusta H., Lynn.
Atwood, Mrs. Donald, Bridgewater.
Atwood, Mrs. F. E., West Roxbury.
Atwood, Miss Margaret, Quincy.
Aubin, Mrs. J. Harris, Newton.
Auryansen, Mrs. George W., Newton-
Austin, Mrs. Fred W., Quincy.
Ayer, Mrs. Charles F., Boston.
Ayer, Mr. Charles F., Boston.
*Ayling, Mr. Charles L., Centreville.
Bacon, Mrs. Albert, Bedford.
Bacon, Mr. Arthur Williston, Allston.
Bailey, Miss Theodora, Boston.
Bailey, Mrs. William M., Maiden.
Baker, Miss Frances F., Dedham.
Ball, Mr. Willard J., Brookline.
Barbarin, Mrs. Gabrielle, Cranbury,
Barnard, Miss L. F. S., Boston.
Barnes, Mrs. Florence B., Kingston
Barney, Mrs. H. B., Hingham.
Barrett, Mr. George L., Woburn.
Barrett, Mr. Gordon E., Arlington.
Barrett, Mrs. Walter M., Melrose.
Barry, Miss Alice E., Roxbury.
Bartlett, Mrs. Robert E., Oakland,
Baston> Mr. James W., Brookline.
Bates, Mrs. E. H., Ashland.
Battelle, Mr. Judson S., Dover.
Bauer, Mr. Samuel F., Wilton, N. H.
Beals, Mrs. A. E., North Weymouth.
Beals, Mrs. George C, Winchendon.
Belknap, Mrs. Charles, Boston.
Bemis, Miss Ruth, Chestnut Hill.
Berkhahn, Mr. Fritz, Newton Centre.
Berry, Miss Helen A. H., Waltham.
Berry, Miss Susie A., Portland, Maine.
Betts, Mr. William A., Milton.
Bicknell, Mrs. Ralph E., Swampscott.
Bigelow, Mrs. Lewis S., North Andover.
Bill, Mrs. Alexander H., Cambridge.
Bill, Mrs. Grace, Maiden.
Bisco, Mr. Herbert H., Leicester.
Bishop, Mr. Elias, Newton Centre.
Bittinger, Mrs. Charles, Brookline.
Blake, Dr. John Bapst, Brookline.
Blanchard, Mrs. Alice M., Gloucester.
Blanchard, Howard C, Cumberland
Blanchard, Miss Katherine A., Danvers.
Blaney, Mr. Fred J., West Roxbury.
Blood, Miss Helen, Lynn.
Blood, Miss Minnie E., Maiden.
Blundell, Mr. L. L., Brookline.
Boerner, Mr. Eugene S., Newark, N. Y.
Bolles, Miss Dorothy F., Boston.
Bonazzoli, Mr. Dante, Westboro.
Bond, Mrs. F. D., Newton Centre.
Booker, Miss Butie, Abingdon, Va.
Booth, Mrs. Thomas B., Newton Centre.
Borland, Mrs. Charles R., Concord.
Boshco, Mr. Peter K., West Medford.
Boswell, Mrs. Anne C, Westboro.
Bosworth, Arthur S., Portland, Maine.
Bowman, Miss Alice M., Bridgewater.
Bowman, Miss Mary E., Bedford.
Boyle, Miss Mary J., Lowell.
Bradlee, Mrs. F. B. C, Marblehead.
Bradlee, Mrs. Stanwood G., Chestunt
Bradley, Miss Mary T., Boston.
Bradstreet, Miss Martha E., Beverly.
Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur M., Rockland.
Bray, Mrs. William C, Newton Centre.
Brayton, Mrs. A. L., Newton Centre.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Bright, Mrs. Elmer H. f Cambridge.
Brighton, Mr. Albert, Peterborough,
Broad, Miss Gertrude F., Gloucester.
Brooks, Mr. Ernest E., Framingham.
Brown, Miss Olie Lawrence, Maiden.
Brown, Mr. Rolla W., Newton.
Brown, Jr., Mrs. Winthrop, Cambridge.
Buck, Mrs. William T., Melrose High-
Buckley, Mrs. Mary E., Atlantic.
Buntin, Mrs. George, Arlington.
Burke, Mr. Paul F., Brookline.
Burlingame, Mr. Howard Benjamin,
Burnham, Mrs. George A., Cliftondale.
Burnham, Mrs. H. A., Boston.
Burnham, Miss Mary Porter, Essex.
Butterworth, Mrs. C. F., Hopedale.
Byrd, Mrs. Edgar L., Ipswich.
Cabot, Mrs. Elizabeth L., Boston.
*Cabot, Mrs. Samuel, Jamaica Plain.
Cabot, Mrs. Sewall, Brookline.
Calder, Miss Ruth, Newtonville.
Callan, Mrs. John, Wellesley.
Calver, Mrs. Arthur W., Newton Centre.
Campbell, Jr., Mrs. Robert, Swampscott.
Canavan, Mrs. Walter F., Boston.
Carbee, Miss Dora, Stoneham.
Carey, Mrs. James H., Waban.
Carles, Mrs. George H., Haverhill.
Carne, Mrs. Carrie E., Adams.
Carter, Mrs. William Lyman, Lexington,
Carvell, Miss Bertha, Newton.
Case, Mr. Horace N., Hyde Park.
*Casselberry, Mrs. Clarence M., Newton.
Caswell, Mr. F. James, Haverhill.
Caughey, Mrs. Rachel E., Antrim, N. H.
Chaffee, Miss Mary L., Franklin Park.
Chamberlain, Mrs. Anne B., Brookline.
Chamberlin, Jr., Mrs. Edwin, Cam-
Chamberlin, Mrs. Fred H., Newton
Champlin, Mr. Ira J., Wollaston.
Chandler, Mrs. Geo. H., Manchester,
Chandler, Mr. George W., Newtonville.
Chapman, Miss E. D., Cambridge.
Cherrington, Miss Mary Edna, Hyde
Chesterton, Mrs. A. W., Brookline.
Childs, Miss Marguerite, Groton.
Church, Mrs. Arthur W., Newtonville.
Church, Dr. Harry M., Gardiner, Maine.
Ohynoweth, Mr. James, St. Albans, Vt.
Clark, Mrs. Dana, Andover.
Clark, Mrs. E. B., Boston.
Clark, Mrs. Frances, Bridgewater.
Clark, Mrs. George H., Boston.
Clark, Mrs. Grace M., Roxbury.
Clark, Mrs. Wm. E., Sharon.
Clarkson, Mr. Wm. D., East Green-
wich, R. I.
Clarridge, Mr. Arthur P., Milford.
Clarridge, Mr. Fred W., Milford.
Clarridge, Mrs. Myrtle J., Milford.
Clement, Miss Alice W., Boston.
Clifford, Mr. Joseph M., Roxbury.
Clisby, Mrs. Ella, South Braintree.
Coath, Miss Annie L., Melrose High-
Cobb, Mrs. John E., Waltham.
Cobb, Miss Josephine, Bridgewater.
Cochrane, Mrs. Delia E., Billerica.
Cochrane, Mr. John, Billerica.
Coffin, Mrs. A. B., Dorchester.
Cole, Mrs. Benjamin, Chelmsford.
Cole, Miss Frances R., Chester, Va.
Collier, Mrs. Forrest F., Cambridge.
Collins, Mr. George Theophilus, Holly-
Collupy, Miss Cora D., Arlington
Colson, Mrs. Harold Roy, Watertown.
Comer, Mr. Ernest A., Salem.
Comer, Mrs. Sarah R., Newton Centre.
Conant, Miss Jennie F., Melrose.
Conant, Mrs. Roger B., Dedham.
Conwell, Mr. H. Ernest, Milton, Dela.
Cook, Miss Mabel P., Lexington.
Coolidge, Jr., Mr. John T., Readville.
Cooper, Mrs. Frank I., Wayland.
Cooper, Jr., Mr. Thomas, Weston New-
Copeland, Mrs. Edgar M., Lynn.
Copeland, Mr. Stuart B., Bangor, Maine.
Cormier, Mr. Francis, Newton.
Cottle, Mrs. Clara I., Woburn.
Cotton, Miss Bessie Luette, Brighton.
Cowdery, Mrs. William R., Winchester.
Craig, Mr. Norman T., Weymouth.
Craigin, Dr. George A., Boston.
Cram, Miss Mary M., Waltham.
Creaney, Mrs. F. H., Woburn.
Cristman, Mr. Clyde E., Ashland.
Crocker, Jr., Mr. Joseph C, Brockton.
Cronk, Mrs. Ida Foster, Chestnut Hill.
Cronk, Mrs. Nettie M., Salem Centre.
Crowell, Mr. Fred, Neponset.
Crowell, Mr. Lester E., No. Chatham.
Crowell, Mrs. Rufus, Winchester.
Cummings, Mrs. Hattie E., Somerville.
Cummings, Miss Margaret, Boston.
Cummings, Mr. Marshall F., Nashua,
Cummings, Mr. W. W., Belmont.
Cunliffe, Miss Selina, Methuen.
Curtis, Miss Lillian F., Marlboro.
Curtis Mr. Thorold S., Stoughton.
Cutter, Mr. Leonard F., Boston.
Dahl, Miss Elizabeth, Dorchester.
Dale, Rev. Oliver B., Cambridge.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927
Dalrymple, Mr. George E., Haverhill.
Darcey, Mr. Thomas J., Belmont.
Davis, Mrs. Francis, Belmont.
Davis, Miss Grace E., Wellesley.
Davis, Miss Lucy, Cambridge.
Davis, Mr. Malcolm B., Arlington.
Davis, Mrs. Myron, Jr., Maiden.
Davol, Mr. Ralph, Taunton.
Dean, Mr. L. J., Maiden.
Dean, Mrs. Luther, Taunton.
Dean, Mrs. Walter W., Dedham.
Dear, Mr. Robert Eraser, Manchester,
Dearborn, Miss Sarah A., Brookline.
Demeter, Mr. Harry C, Boston.
Denham, Mrs. John E., Waban.
Denner, Mr. Herbert J., Needham.
Denyven, Mrs. George W., Dorchester.
Derrick, Rev. Thomas H., Peabody.
Devlin, Mrs. Edward E., Jr., Waban.
Dickson, Mrs. Marguerite S., Belmont.
Dike, Miss Cora E., Stoneham.
Dodge, Mr. Chester E., Billerica.
Dodge, Mrs. N. Phillips, Hyde Park.
Dodkin, Alfred T., Eoxboro.
Doherty, William J., Woburn.
*Donald, Mrs. Malcolm, Mattapan.
Donaldson, Mrs. J. Prank, Salem.
Donovan, Mr. Francis, Peterborough,
Doran, Miss Eleanor A., Lexington.
Douglass, Mrs. Alfred W., Brookline.
*Dow, Mrs. Flora W., Reading, Ver-
Dowey, Mr. Thomas, Wayland.
Doyle, Miss Mary A., Danvers.
Draper, Mrs. Joseph P., Canton.
Dreist, Carl, Roxbury.
Driscoll, Mrs. F. J., West Newton.
Driver, Miss Emily F. S., Weston.
Drowne, Mrs. Edwin, Newton High-
Ducey, Mrs. John J., Brookline.
Duffy, Mr. Michael, Roslindale.
Dunlap, Mrs. Flora E., Billerica.
Dwight, Miss Marion McG., Brookline.
Dyke, Mrs. Arthur C, Bridgewater.
Eakins, Miss Margaret I., Yarmouth,
Eastman, Miss Maria W., Ashmont.
Eaton, Mrs. C. F., Wellesley Hills.
Eaton, Miss Ethel M., Boston.
Eaton, Mrs. Henry C, Waltham.
Eaton, Mrs. J. Howarth, Sharon.
Eckhardt, Mr. Ernest E., Dover.
Edelman, Mr. Samuel, Philadelphia, Pa.
Ekstrom, Miss Helen M., Boston.
Eliot, Mr. Christopher R., Cambridge.
Elkins, Mrs. Port B., Winchester.
Elliott, Miss Bessie, Belmont.
Elliott, Miss Emma, Sharon.
Elliott, Mr. Walter S., Arlington
Ellis, Mrs. E. L., Milton.
Ellis, Mrs. George W., Boston.
Ellison, Miss Agnes S., Duxbury.
Emerson, Mrs. Clara B. C, Brockton.
Emerson, Miss Evelyn, Boston.
Emerson, Mr. K. B., Sharon.
Emerson, Mrs. L. E., Cambridge.
Erath, Mr. H. J. Newton Highlands.
Erickson, Mrs. Clifton C, Auburndale.
Eskrigge, Mrs. Frank T., Newton
Estabrook, Mr. Harry F., Boston.
Eversole, Mrs. George E., Groton.
Fabyan, Mrs. Marshall, Boston.
Fairbnaks, Mr. Charles L., South-
Fairbanks, Mr. Frank, Natick.
Fall, Mrs. Charles G., Boston.
Farley, Miss Christine, Cambridge.
Farnum, Mrs. Frank S., Brockton.
Fay, Mr. Henry H., Concord.
Fay, Mrs. Henry H., Boston.
Fay, Mr. William H., Peabody.
Fay, Mrs. Willis Ward, Cambridge.
Feeney, Mrs. Joseph, West Newton.
Ferguson, Mrs. Crawford, Bridgewater.
Fernald, Mrs. Horace, Abington.
Ferry, Miss Mabel, Hingham.
Field, Mrs. Mary L., Winter Hill.
Fielding, Mrs. E. M., Chestnut Hill.
Finn, Mrs. Joseph T., Dedham.
Fischer, Miss A. M., Ballardvale.
Fisher, Mrs. Samuel L., Beach Bluff.
Fisher, Mrs. Thomas L., Leominster.
Fiske, Mrs. Gardiner H., Boston.
*Fiske, Mrs. Elliot W., Waltham.
Fitz, Mrs. Charles N., Newton Centre.
Fletcher, Mrs. Arthur G., Canton.
Folger, Mrs. Lilias, Newton Centre.
Folk, Mr. G. Edgar, Andover.
Folts, Miss Gertrude Irving, Winchester.
Forbes, Mrs. Elmer, Weston.
*Ford, Mrs. Henry, Dearborn, Mich.
Ford, Mr. Joseph B., Cambridge.
Fowler, Mr. William Everett, West-
Fox, Miss Mildred H., Roxbury.
Fox, Miss Sarah E., Cohasset.
Fox, Mr. Walter S., Jr., Hingham.
Freeman, Mrs. Alice R., Everett.
French, Mrs. Samuel P., West Lebanon,
Frisch, Mr. LeRoy G., Piqua, Ohio.
Frost, Mr. Ernest, Lincoln.
Frost, Mr. G. Howard, West Newton.
Frost, Mrs. Herbert S., Upham's Cor-
Frye, Mr. A. A., Lowell.
Fuller, Dr. Ernest P., Lawrence.
Fuller, Mrs. George S., Lawrence.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Fuller, Mrs. Harriet W., North An-
Fuller, Mrs. Willard P., Wrentham.
Fullerton, Mr. Benjamin A., Saugus.
Gage, Mrs. J. Arthur, Lowell.
Galvin, Mr. John, Maiden.
Gammans, Miss Edith, Newton Centre.
Garceau, Mrs. Albert, Boston.
Gardella, Mr. John L., Roxbury.
Gardner, Miss Alice M., Boston.
Garland, Dr. Joseph, Brookline.
Garrod, Mrs. J. A., West Somerville.
Gay, Mrs. Mollie L., Maiden.
Geddes, Miss Lillian M., Boston.
Gerould, Miss Theodora A., Bedford.
Getty, Mrs. Henry A., Newton Centre.
Gilbert, Mr. G. H., Segreganset.
Gilbert, Miss H. C, Milton.
Gilliland, Mrs. W. L., Cambridge.
*Gilman, Mr. O. B., Boston.
Gilmer, Mrs. Albert H., West Medford.
Gilmer, Mr. Frank, South Bend, Ind.
Gilmore, Mrs. Edward S., Newtonville.
Gilmour, Mrs. W. Wesley, West Somer-
Gilpin, Mrs. John C, Philadelphia, Pa.
Gleason, Mr. E. L., Framingham.
Goldschmidt, Mrs. Louis, Melrose High-
Goldthwaite, Mr. Vincent, Wellesley.
Goodrich, Mrs. Wallace, Boston.
Goodwin, Mr. Harvey H., Leominster.
Goodwin, Mrs. William B., Lowell.
Gordon, Mr. Charles B., Newton Centre.
Gorely, Jr., Mr. Charles P., Wellesley
Goss, Mrs. Annie Pemberton, Bradford.
Gosselin, Mrs. Louis V., East Milton.
Gowen, Miss Elizabeth F., Braintree.
Graves, Mrs. Harold S., Weston.
Graves, Miss Marion G., Cliftondale.
Gray, Jr., Mrs. Thomas H., Brookline.
Green, Mr. Ralph B., Dedham.
Greene, Mrs. Thomas E., Danvers.
Greenleaf, Mr. George F., Newton
Greenwood, Dr. Arthur M., Boston.
Greever, Mrs. Harvey S., East Lynn.
Griffin, Mrs. Frank D., Gloucester.
Griffith, Miss Josephine, Milton.
Grinnell, Mr. Henry F., Fall River.
Grinnell, Mrs. Russell, Providence, R. I.
Grover, Mr. Oscar W., Revere.
Guiddry, Miss Florence A., Danvers.
Guild, Miss Helen, Boston.
Gunther, Miss Mary, Dracut.
Hadaway, Mrs. Julia P., Boston.
Hadd, Mr. V. A., Fitchburg.
Hadley, Dr. Amos I., Wayland.
Hadley, Rev. Rubens R., Newtonville.
Haight, Mr. Louis P., Boston.
Hall, Mrs. Emeline G., Winchester.
Hall, Mrs. Melville C, Sharon.
Hall, Mrs. Ralph N., Newton.
Hallowell, Miss Emily C, Norwood.
Ham, Miss Ethel, Newtonville.
Hamiltdn, Miss S. Alice, Medford.
Hamlin, Mr. B. Nason, Dedham.
Hamilton, Miss Sarah H., Hyde Park.
Hancock, Mrs. James H., Hudson.
Hanna, Mrs. Anthony G., Holbrook.
Hanna, Mr. William B., Newtonville.
Hannappel, Miss Louisa J., Andover.
Hanscom, Miss Marion, Winter Hill.
Hanson, Mrs. William, State Farm.
Harris, Mr. Frank S., Dedham.
Harris, Mrs. Henry W., Chestnut Hill.
Harticon, Mrs. Wm. F., Central Village.
Hartshorne, Mr. C. L., Newtonville.
Hartshorne, Mr. W. O., Melrose.
Harwood, Mrs. Bradford, Winchester.
Hasey, Mrs. Frederick, Bridgewater.
Haskell, Mrs. Albert B., Fitchburg.
Haskell, Mrs. Lillian R., Lynn.
Hatch, Mr. Henry T., Gloucester.
Hathaway, Mrs. E. F., Wellesley Hills.
Hathaway, Miss Ellen R., New Bedford.
Hauthaway, Mr. C. L., Brookline.
Haven, Mrs. Margaret B. T., Cohasset.
Hawes, Mrs. Alfred T., Lynn.
Hawkridge, Mrs. Leslie D., Newton
Haworth, Mr. Christopher, Newton
Hayn, Mr. Ernest M., Springfield.
Hayward, Mr. Arthur H., Weymouth.
Hazzard, Mrs. R. P., Gardiner, Maine.
Heard, Mr. Frederick, Plymouth.
Heath, Mr. Edward H., Swampscott.
Heath, Mrs. Geneva J., Wakefield.
Henderson, Mr. Walter E., Jamaica
Hersom, Mrs. Frank S., Chelsea.
Hewes, Mrs. Thomas, Farmington, Conn.
Hewett, Mrs. Roy, Newton Centre.
Hewins, Mrs. Parke W., Wellesley Hills.
Hicks, Mrs. Winnifred M., Middletown.
Hiesley, Mr. Thomas E., Hopewell Junc-
tion, N. Y.
Higginson, Mrs. Charles, Cohasset.
Hill, Mrs. C. L., Jamaica Plain.
Hill, Mrs. Fred, Stoneham.
Hilliard, Mr. R. L., Framingham.
Hinkley, Mrs. R. H., Dedham.
Hobbs, Mrs. Samuel T., Worcester.
Hodgkins, Mrs. O. H., Roslindale.
Holland, Mrs. Mabelle F., Buzzards Bay.
Hollingsworth, Mrs. Mark, Boston.
Hollis, Mrs. E. Stanwood, Braintree.
Hollis, Miss Mary J., Belmont.
Holmes, Mrs. Hector Mel., Waban.
Holmes, Miss Helen, Kingston.
Holmes, Mr. Philip S., Gardner.
Holmes, Mr. Wellington, Halifax.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927
Holmes, Mr. William B., Gardner.
Homerberg, Mr. V. O., Cambridge.
Hood, Mr. A. N., Chestnut Hill.
Hood, Mrs. A. N., Chestnut Hill.
Hooke, Mrs. William F., Castine, Maine.
Hooker, Mr. F. Brewster, Hingham.
Houle, Mrs. F. T., Amesbury.
Howard, Mr. A. E., Worcester.
Howard, Mr. Fred C, Stoneham.
Howden, Mr. Norman, Boston.
Howe, Mr. Frederick L., Stoneham.
Howe, Mrs. Frederic W., Swampscott.
Howe, Miss Lois Lilley, Cambridge.
Howe, Mrs. Mary E., Melrose.
Howe, Mrs. O. H., Cohasset.
Howe, Mr. O. R., Jr., South Weymouth.
Howlett, Mrs. E. L., Annisquam.
Hugo, Mrs. G. B., Jamaica Plain.
*Hunnewell, Mr. Arnold W., Wellesley.
*Hunnewell, Mrs. Walter, Wellesley.
Hunt, Mrs. Albert F., Bridgewater.
Hunt, Mrs. Brenelle, Bridgewater.
Hunt, Mr. Franklin S., Boston.
Hunter, Mrs. Thomas, Larchmont, N. Y.
Huntress, Miss Ethel, Cambridge.
Huntress, Mrs. Franklin E., Newton.
Huse, Mrs. Charles P., Belmont.
Hyde, Miss Louvan W., North Cohasset.
Hyland, Mr. John F., East Weymouth.
Ingram, Mr. C. Craig, New Haven,
Jackson, Miss Anne W., Brookline.
Jackson, Mrs. Delbert L., Brookline.
Jackson, Mrs. Eugene B., Brookline.
Jacobus, Mr. Martin R., Ridgefield, N. J.
Jameson, Mrs. James W., Concord,
Jannsen, Mr. Ernest, Douglaston, Long
Island, N. Y.
Jaques, Miss Helen, Milton.
Jefferson, J. P., Santa Barbara, Calif.
Jenks, Mr. Henry Angier, Cambridge.
Jenney, Mrs. Paul G., Brookline.
Jennings, Mrs. John F., Longmeadow.
Jepson, Miss Flora, Cambridge.
Johnson, Mrs. Frances M., Roslindale.
Johnson, Mrs. J. B., Patterson, N. J.
Johnson, Miss J. E., West Somerville.
Jones, Miss Alice Gertrude, Billerica.
Jones, Mr. D. W., Melrose.
Jones, Mrs. Edwin J., Bedford.
Jones, Mrs. Matt B., Newton Centre.
Jordan, Mrs. Charles F., Bridgewater.
Joseph, Mrs. Arthur, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Joy, Miss Alice, Winchester.
Justice, Mr. Charles H., Newton.
Keay, Miss Ida C, Boston.
Keith, Miss Adeline, Bridgewater.
Kelley, Mrs. Anthony, Winchester.
Kellogg, Mrs. Frances E. Osborne, Der-
Kempton, Mrs. Harryett M., Boston.
Kendall, Mrs. C. F., Newton Centre.
Kennedy, Mrs. Mary H., East Hartford,
Kenrick, Miss Jeannie B., Newton.
Kent, Miss Bernice E., Lancaster, N. H.
Kent, Mr. W. Stedman, Wakefield.
Kilbourne, Miss Katherine E., Chelms-
Kilch, Miss M. D., Boston.
Kilham, Miss Elizabeth H., Beverly.
Killy, Miss Lucy H., Eastport, Maine.
Kimball, Mrs. Charles, Bedford.
Kimball, Mrs. Harriet B. W., E. Brain-
Kimball, Mrs. James H., Hingham.
Kimball, Miss Martha G., Bradford.
Kincaid, Mrs. E. D., Lawrence.
King, Mrs. H. P., Jr., Boston.
King, Mrs. Virginia, Gloucester.
Kinson, Mr. Harry A., Georgetown.
Kleiser, Mrs. George W., San Mateo,
Knights, Mr. Willard, Newburyport.
Kuhn, Miss Anna W., Andover.
Kurt, Mr. Franklin T., West Newton.
Ladd, Miss Emma L., Arlington.
Lane, Miss Rachel P., Boston.
Law, Mr. Hervey F., Boston.
Lawrence, Mrs. Ralph R., Brookline.
Leach, Mrs. Cora M., Bridgewater.
Leatherbee, Miss Eleanor W., West
Leatherbee, Mrs. Frederick K., Hatch-
Leatherbee, Mrs. Robert W. f Hatch-
Leavitt, Mrs. Alice D., Winchester.
Leeping, Mrs. Anna, Neponset.
Leland, Miss Cora J., Newton Upper
Lennon, Mr. Patrick, Hingham.
Leonard, Miss Edna, East Bridgewater.
Leonard, Mrs. Royden C, North Easton.
Leslie, Mrs. Perley, Haverhill.
Levenson, Mr. Ellis L., Roxbury.
Lewenberg, Mrs. Solomon, Brookline.
Lewis, Mrs. Arthur L., Newton Centre.
Lewis Jr., Mrs. George, Sherborn.
Lewis, Mr. Harry C, Waban.
Lewis, Mrs. Weston K., Swampscott.
Libbey, Mrs. Wilfred, Westboro.
Libby, Mrs. Gracia D., Roxbury.
Little, Mrs. Theodore W., Cohasset.
Little, Mr. William W., West Roxbury.
Littlefield, Miss Alice L., Dorchester.
Loizeaux, Mrs. Jean J., Plymouth,
Lommerse, Mr. William F., Brighton.
Lord, Mrs. H. C, Brookline.
Lothrop, Mrs. Saba, Bridgewater.
Lovett, Miss Caroline A., West Newton.
Loveland, Mrs. Fred H., Newton.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Lovewell, Mrs. Clara A., Melrose.
Luce, Mrs. D. S., Canton.
Lutz, Mr. Eugene, Lawrence.
Lynch, Miss Helena F., South Boston.
Lyons, Miss Katherine, Boston.
Macandrew, Mrs. David C, Braintree.
MacDermind, Mr. C. A., Boston.
MacDonald, Miss Helen V., Chelsea.
MacKendrick, Col. W. G., Oakville, Ont.
MacKenzie, Mrs. Evelyn M., Cambridge.
Mackie, Mrs. Wra. A., New Bedford.
Mackintosh, Mr. Newton, Roxbury.
MacLeod, Miss Elspeth V., Cambridge,
Macomber, Mr. Alton I., New Bedford.
Madden, Mr. M. Lester, Newton Center.
Mallus, Miss May Thacher, Brookline.
Maltheis, Mr. Frederic W., South Dux-
Maltheis, Mrs. Frederic W., South Dux-
Mann, Mrs. Charles, Boston.
Mann, Mr. Horace, Jamaica Plain.
Manning, Miss Eleanor, Lynn.
Mansfield, Mrs. Harold B., Waltham.
Marbaker, Dr. N. D., Boston.
Marsh, Mr. Daniel L., Brookline.
Marshall, Mr. G. G., Cleveland, Ohio.
Marshall, Mrs. L. W., Cambridge.
Marshall, Mrs. Lewis C, Norwood.
Martyn, Mr. George J., Boston.
Marvin, Mrs. Claude R., Marshfield
Marvin, Mrs. Harold A., Hingham.
Mason, Mrs. C. O., No. Attleboro.
Matson, Mr. Willis B., Marblehead.
Maynard, Mrs. H. W., Belmont.
Maynard, Mrs. W. J., Patterson, N. J.
Mayo, Miss Lilian Shreve, Wellesley.
McCarron, Mrs. Joseph C, Auburndale.
*McClellan, Miss Lillian, So. Hanson.
McDermott, Mrs. Wililam C, Dorches-
McDonough, Mr. James A., "West Rox-
McFarland, Mr. J. Horace, Harrisburg,
McGrath, Mr. James, Boston.
Mcintosh, Mrs. Emma F., Mattapan.
McKay, Miss E. Marjorie, Cambridge.
McKenzie, Mrs. Clarence J., Winthrop.
McMcKenzie, Mr. John D., Buzzards
McKiernan, Mr. Hugh, Roxbury.
McLane, Miss Bessie L., Reading.
McLean, Mr. W. H., Cambridge.
McNeeland, Miss Edna, Bridgewater.
McPhee, Mr. Clement S., Meshanticut
Park, R. I.
Mead, Mrs. Frederick S., Brookline.
Mead, Mrs. Theodosia B., Arlington.
Medding, Mrs. W. F., Winchester.
Mehaffey, Mrs. George, Brookline.
Mercer, Mr. John T., Andover.
Merrick, Mr. F. H., Concord, N. H.
Merrill, Mrs. Amy P., Danvers.
Merrill, Mr. Edward, West Roxbury.
Merrill, Mr. William E., Brookline.
Metcalf, Mr. Louis P., Arlington.
Metherall, Miss Juanita, Wollaston.
Michael, Mr. Arthur, Newton Centre.
Miller. Mrs. Clarence C, Winchester.
Miller, Mrs. H. A., Newton Highlands.
Miller, Mrs. Herbert H., Norwood.
Millett, Mrs. G. Donne, Cambridge.
Milliken, Mr. Arthur N., Boston.
Milne, Mrs. Mary A. F., Wellesley.
Mirick, Miss Edith A., West Roxbury.
Mitchell, Miss Mary, Billerica.
Mixter, Mrs. Charles A., Brookline.
Moffett, Mr. Raymond, Georgetown.
*Moltke, Count Carl, Klampenborg,
Montague, Mr. David T., Boston.
Montanari, Mrs. Helen, Newton.
Montgomery, Mr. Alexander P., Hyde
Moody, Mr. Ambert G., East North-
Moore, Miss Christine E., Thomaston,
Moore, Mrs. W. S., Dorchester.
Moran, Mr. Burt, Brookline.
Morey, Mr. William E., Shrewsbury.
Morgan, Mrs. Charles F., Worcester.
Morgan, Mrs. Paul B., Worcester.
Morley, Mr. Ephraim, Providence, R. I.
Morrill, Mrs. Frank A., Norwood.
Morrison, Mrs. Edith F., Braintree.
Morrissey, Mr. John, West Lynn.
Morse, Mrs. Albert F., Canton.
Morse, Mrs. Henry B., Danvers.
Morse, Mrs. Marguerite W., Nest New-
Morse, Mrs. Wm. G., Cambridge.
Morss, Mr. Charles H., Needham.
Moss, Mrs. Charles Whitson, Brookline.
Moss, Mrs. J. D., Lynn.
Moulton, Mrs. Grace E., West Peabody.
Moulton, Mrs. Marialis W. H., Boston.
Mower, Mrs. Walter J., Dorchester.
Moyer, Mr. 0. C, Reading.
Muir, Dr. Laura H., Roslindale.
Muir, Mr. William E., Roslindale.
Murdock, Mrs. John J., Larchmont,
Murray, Mrs. Albert N., Melrose.
Myers, Miss Claire I., Boston.
Nasmund, Miss Blanche, Chestnut Hill.
Nason, Mr. Carlisle, Wellesley.
Neff, Mr. Robert P. K., Dedham.
Nelson, Mr. Charles E., Boston.
Nelson, Mrs. Mae L., Chelsea.
Newcomer, Mr. Walter S. f Dorchester,
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927
Newhall, Mrs. Guy, Lynn.
Newhall, Mrs. U. J., Lynnfield.
Newton, Miss Cora A., "Westboro.
Newton, Mrs. Edwin M., Boston.
Newton, Mrs. Elizabeth S., Newton
Newton, Mrs. G. F., Cobasset.
Nichols, Mrs. Chester W., Newton
Nichols, Mrs. George V., East Brain-
Nightingale, Miss Nina, Boston.
Nordquist, Mrs. Frode, Ipswich.
Norman, Mrs. "William E., Groton.
Northington, Mrs. Merrill P., Birming-
Northrup, Mrs. Arthur J., Swampscott.
Norton, Mrs. Jerome B., Roslindale.
Noterman, Mr. Gaston, Maiden.
Nunn, Mrs. Charles P., Lexington.
Nutting, Mr. George Hale, Boston.
Nye, Mrs. Arthur E., Worcester.
Nye, Mrs. E. F., Belmont.
Ober, Miss Eleanor F., Boston.
O'Brien, Miss Honora F., Cambridge.
O'Connor, Miss Eleanor C, Lawrence.
Ogan, Mr. "Walter J., Dorchester.
O'Leary, Miss Eleanor, Dorchester.
Olsen, Miss Hilda N., Arlington.
Ordway, Mrs. Warren, Newton Centre.
Osgood, Mrs. Herbert L., Springfield.
Osgood, Mrs. Isaac, North Andover.
O'Shea, Mrs. Lucy W., Stoneham.
Ostler, Mr. John, Methuen.
Otis, Mrs. Herbert Foster, Boston.
Owens, Miss Jorado, Winchester.
Packard, Miss Anna W., Hudson.
Packard, Mrs. L. W., Ashland.
Packard, Mr. W. F., Marlborough.
Padgett, Mrs. Emma F., Stoneham.
Page, Mr. W. Putnam, Lincoln.
Paine, Mr. Frederick W., Brookline.
Palmer, Mrs. Henry W., Milton.
Parker, Mrs. Benjamin W., Dorchester.
Parker, Miss Bessie I., Dover, N. H.
*Parker, Mr. Charles Henry, Boston.
*Parker, Mrs. G. D., Boston.
Parker, Mrs. Nella D., Lynnfield Cen-
* Parker, Mrs. William Amory, Boston.
Parkhurst, Mr. Clarence W., Foxboro.
Parry, Mr. Robert P., West Roxbury.
Parsons, Miss Sally, Lynn.
Partridge, Mr. Richard, Hingham.
Patten, Mrs. David L., Boston.
Patten, Miss Mary L., Dorchester.
Payne, Miss Blanche, Boston.
Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Cambridge.
Peabody, Mrs. Harlan B., Providence,
Pecker, Miss Jessie, Lynnfield Centre.
Peckham, Mr. Henry A. B., Saugus.
Pegram, Mrs. Frank R., Cohasset.
Pennell, Mrs. Henry B., Cohasset.
Penniman, Miss S. Ella, Andover.
Percy, Mrs. Karlton G., Chestnut Hill.
Perham, Mrs. Walter, Chelmsford.
Perkins, Mrs. C. E., Melrose.
Perkins, Mr. M. Sumner, Danvers.
Perrin, Mr. Arthur C, Portland, Ore-
Perry, Mrs. Edna T., West Somerville.
Pettee, Mrs. Otis T., Newton Upper
Pettigrew, Mr. F. E., Manchester, N. H.
Pevey, Mr. Gilbert A. A., Boston.
Phelps, Mr. James W., Melrose High-
Philadelphus, Mr. Gabriel, Amherst.
Pierce, Mrs. Francis A., Boston.
Pierce, Mr. W. Harding, Hudson.
Pike, Mr. Frederick N., Milton.
PiUsbury, Mrs. W. H. C, Brookline.
Pitcher, Mrs. Marion M., Hingham.
Plant, Mrs. C. Griggs, Cohasset.
Plant, Miss Lillian M., Norfolk Downs.
Pleschinger, Mr. Edward F., Boston.
Pleschinger, Mrs. Edward F., Boston.
Poland, Miss Evelyn, Reading.
Poole, Miss Marian, Maiden.
Poor, Mr. J. E., Boston.
Pope, Mrs. R. L., Brookline.
Porter, Mr. John L., Stoughton.
Porter, Mrs. Willard B., Salem.
Potter, Mrs. Mary E., Boston.
Pratt, Miss Alice A., Waltham.
Pratt, Mrs. Frank R., Brookline.
Pratt, Mrs. W. W., Hingham.
Prendergast, Mr. Frank M., Boston.
Prescott, Miss Dorothy N., Plaistow,
Prescott, Mr. John R., Newtonville.
Preston, Miss Gertrude E., Wellesley.
Preston, Mrs. Horace G., Detroit, Mich.
Price, Mr. Charles R., New Bedford.
Proctor, Mrs. Guy, Somerville.
Puffer, Mr. Wm. L., Brockton.
Punchard, Mr. William H., Boston.
Purdon, Mrs. James, Milton.
Purves, Mrs. David H., New London,
Putnam, Mrs. C. E., Saugus, Maine.
Pyle, Mrs. Edwin W., Newton.
Quirin, Miss Alice M., West Somerville.
Ramale, Mr. K., Brickchurch, Pa.
Ramsdell, Mr. Arthur E., Wollaston.
Rand, Miss Alice, Brookline.
Rand, Miss Lucy H., Wollaston.
Randlett, Mrs. G. F., Watertown.
Rankins, Mrs. Maria F., Sudbury.
Rawson, Mr. George A., Newton.
Rawson, Miss Janet Bremner, Yar-
Raymond, Miss Frances A., Milton.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Rayner, Mrs. A. N., Newton Centre.
Rayner, Mrs. Ida M., Stoneham.
Read, Jr., Mr. H. A. S., Boston.
Read, Mrs. Robert M., Medford.
Reed, Mrs. E. W., North Dartmouth.
Reed, Mrs. Herbert, Bridgewater.
Reed, Mrs. Kelsey G., Lexington.
Reed, Mrs. Ralph H., Swampscott.
Reeves, Mrs. Irma F., Cambridge.
Reid, Mr. David G., Boston.
Remington, Mr. Berthold M., Fall River.
Reynolds, Mrs. William C, Boston.
Rice, Mrs. David, Boston.
Rich, Mrs. William A., Melrose.
Richards, Mr. A., Wellesley.
Richardson, Mr. Edward A., Newton-
Richardson, Mrs. F. E., Rowley.
Richmond, Mrs. Horace W., Wollaston.
Richmond, Mrs. Winthrop C, Brook-
Ricker, Mrs. Frank 0., East Lynn.
Rindge, Mrs. Wellington, Waban.
Robbins, Mrs. Fred G., Salem.
Roberts, Miss Frances W., Boston.
Roberts, Mrs. Grace A., Wakefield.
Roberts, Mrs. Nellie M. A., Lynnfield.
Robinson, Mrs. Arthur W., Natick.
Robinson, Mrs. Ella F., Revere.
Robinson, Mrs. Henry C, Winchester.
Robinson, Mr. N. Winthrop, Dorches-
Robinson, Mrs. Seth B., Tufts College.
Rockwell, Jr., Mr. Robert 0., West Med-
Rogers, Mrs. A. Stewart, Melrose.
Rogers, Mr. Elliott C, Gloucester.
Rogers, Mrs. J. A., South Weymouth.
Rogers, Mrs. William Coleman, Water-
Roland, Mr. Phillips H., Revere.
Rolfe, Mrs. Benjamin H., Concord,
Roome, Miss M. Edna, Jamaica Plain.
Ropes, Mr. Willis H., Salem.
Rose, Mr. Walter R., Dedham.
Ross, Mrs. Jesse W., Rangeley, Maine.
Rothery, Mrs. J. L., Scituate.
Rothwell, Mrs. William H., Boston.
Roundy, Miss Anna M., Norwood.
Routledge, Mr. James, Needham.
Rowan, Miss Sue J., Hyannis.
Rowe, Miss S. L., Boston.
Rowell, Mrs. Lillian Bridges, Lawrence.
Ruane, Mr. Mathew Francis, Newton-
Rubel, Jr., Mr. Robert O., Crichton,
Rueter, Mrs. Ernest L., Brookline.
Runkle, Mr. John C, Cambridge.
Russell, Mr. George E., Peabody.
Russell, Miss Marieta F., West Med-
Ryan, Mrs. Henry E., Sunderland.
Sabean, Mr. Henry D., Newta i Centre.
Sampson, Mrs. W. R., Boston.
Sanborn, Mr. Arthur L., Needham.
Sanborn, Mr. Frederick N., Boston.
Sanborn, Mrs. M. Ida, Haverhill.
Sanborn, Mrs. Sara L., Concord.
Sanders, Mrs. Thomas, Salem.
Sanderson, Mrs. George A., Cambridge.
Sandoz, Mrs. Edward, Cambridge.
Sanford, Dr. Margaret M., Allston.
Sargent, Mr. Frederick LeRoy, Cam-
Sargent, Mr. Porter, Boston.
Sargent, Mr. Robert E., Boston.
Sass, Mrs. Guy N., Arlington.
Satterlee, Mrs. A. L., Monrovia, Calif.
Saure, Mr. F. C, East Derry, N. H.
Savage, Miss Evelyn, Boston.
Sawyer, Mrs. Edwin F., Jamaica Plain.
Schalk, Mr. Chandler, Brighton.
Schanbacher, Mr. Peter A., Sharon.
Schindler, Miss Theresa E., Cranberry,
Schneider, Mr. Albert W., Lancaster.
Schouler, Mrs. Mary F., Somerville.
Schumacher, Mr. Frederick W., Jamaica
Schweinfurth, Mrs. J. A., Wellesley
Scott, Miss Agnes L., Boston.
Scott, Dr. John W., Lexington, Ky.
Scoville, Mrs. John H., North Andover.
Scudder, Mr. Winthrop S., Boston.
Sears, Mrs. Francis B., Weston.
Sears, Mrs. H. B., Jamaica Plain.
Sears, Miss Mary C, Boston.
Sears, Mr. William R., Cambridge.
Sellers, Miss Gertrude, Boston.
Seymour, Mrs. Malcolm, Boston.
Sharp, Mrs. Bertha, Lanesville.
Shaw, Mrs. Albion W., Lexington.
Shaw, Miss Amy H., Brookline.
Shaw, Miss Mildred E., North Abing-
Shaw, Mrs. W. K., Concord.
Shaw, Mr. Walter K., Jr., Concord.
Sheehan, Miss Lenore, Roxbury.
Shepard, Mr. Amos W., Winchester.
Shepard, Mrs. Wm. H. S., Hudson.
Shepard, Mrs. Willis S., Ponkapoag.
Sherburne, Mrs. Frank Foster, Lexing-
Sherburne, Mr. John Henry, Brook-
Sherer, Mrs. Joseph F., Worcester.
Sherman, Miss Elizabeth, North Marsh-
Sherman, Mr. Milton F., South Lincoln.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927
Shipley, Mrs. Francis B., Concord,
Shippen, Mrs. E. R., Boston.
Shove, Mrs. Augustus Granderson,
Shurtleff, Mrs. William H., Lexington.
Sidebotham, Mrs. A. F., San Francisco,
Silver, Mr. Elmer E., Woburn.
Simmons, Mrs. Fred A., Brookline.
Simon, Dr. Arthur L., Lawrence.
Simonds, Mr. Henry G., Brookline.
Simonds, Mrs. Lincoln S., West Glou-
Simpson, Mr. Eugene E., Lexington,
Skelton, Mrs. G. Arthur, Bedford.
Slade, Mrs. W. J., Needham.
Slattery, Mr. Francis, East Weymouth.
Smart, Mrs. Lillian H., Lynn.
Smith, Mrs. Abbott P., New Bedford.
Smith, Mr. Abner H., Middleboro.
Smith. Mrs. Ada R., Belmont.
Smith, Miss Adelaide I., Milton.
Smith, Mrs. Charles F., Wollaston.
Smith, Mrs. F. E., Attleboro.
Smith, Mrs. Frederick H., Readville.
Smith, Mr. Herbert, Framingham.
Smith, Mrs. Richard M., Boston.
Smith, Mrs. Winfield, Brookline.
Smyth, Mrs. Marion C, Manchester,
Snell, Mr. Alwyn G., Brockton.
Snell, Mrs. Grace E., Wellesley.
Snow, Mrs. Daniel K., Brookline.
Somes, Mr. Dana, Boston.
Southgate, Mr. Walter B., Marshfield.
Spalding, Miss L. Marie, Hingham.
Spears, Miss Florence E., Agawam.
Sprague, Mr. C. E., Lexington.
Sprague, Miss Emily A., Chestnut Hill.
Sprague, Mrs. Vere, Abington.
Spring, Mrs. James W., Newton Centre.
Standish, Jr., Mr. Myles, Wellesley.
Stanton, Jr., Mrs. James E., South
Stanwood, Mrs. Elvena, Lynn.
St. Clair, Miss Harriet Williams, Fram-
Stearns, Miss Alice K., Brookline.
Stebbins, Miss M. G., Cliftondale.
Stebbins, Mrs. Lowell, Chestnut Hill.
Stein, Mrs. Alva D., Newton.
Stein, Mrs. Caroline R. S., Brookline.
Stephan, Miss Elizabeth M., Amesbury.
Stephens, Mrs. Herbert, Arlington.
Stephenson, Mr. Benjamin T., Waban.
Stevens, Miss Anne, Winchester.
Stevens, Miss Eleanor W., Greenfield.
Stevens, Mrs. Elmer A., West Somer-
Stevens, Mrs. John Thomas, Kershaw,
Stevens, Mrs. Stillman, Marlborough.
Stewart, Mrs. Frank H., Newton Centre.
Stewart, Mrs. James Atwood, Chelms-
Stimpson, Mrs. I. B., Lynn.
Stinecipher, Mrs. Rachel, Everett.
Stockwell, Miss M. Louise, Boston.
Stone, Mrs. Stella F. M., Waltham.
Storer, Mrs. Theodore, Cambridge.
Strater, Mr. Theodore G., Boston.
Streeter, Mrs. Frank F., Dedham.
Strong, Mrs. S. A., Somerville.
Stuart, Mrs. Willoughby H., Jr., Cam-
Sturgis, Mr. John H., Boston.
Sturgis, Mrs. Karl B., Howard, R. I.
Sullivan, Mrs. Daniel, Boston.
Summers, Mr. John N., Boston.
Swain, Mrs. George F., Brookline.
Swain, Mrs. Harriet C, North Chatham.
Swain, Dr. Howard T., Boston.
Swan, Mr. Frederick W., Milton.
Swanson, Mrs. John, Swansea.
Swanton, Miss Susan B., Medfleld.
Swett, Miss Edith J., Winchester.
Swift, Miss Caroline, East Boston.
Swift, Miss Lila Hathaway, Wellesley
Swift, Mrs. Roland, Bridgewater.
Sylvester, Jr., Mr. Nathan R., West
Tapley, Mr. W. T., Revere.
Tay, Mrs. William M., Brookline.
Taylor, Miss Addie J., East Weymouth.
Taylor, Mr. J. H., West Roxbury.
Taylor, Mrs. John T., Dedham.
Taylor, Miss Katharine B., Boston.
Temple, Mrs. Eleanor C, Wakefield.
Thayer, Mrs. Edward D., Worcester.
*Thayer, Mrs. Frank H., Boston.
Thayer, Miss Sadie E., North Attle-
Thee, Mr. W. E., Akron, Ohio.
Thomas, Miss Alberta T., Maiden.
Thomas, Mr. L. A., Manchester, N. H.
Thompson, Mrs. Floyd A., Amherst.
Thompson, Mrs. F. L., Rye Beach,
Thompson, Mrs. L. P., Newton Centre.
*Thorndike, Dr. Augustus, Boston.
Thoron, Mr. Ward, Danvers.
Thresher, Mrs. George A., Williamsburg.
Tibbetts, Mrs. Guy, Antrim, N. H.
Tobey, Mrs. Harold G., Jamaica Plain.
Toedt, Miss Sara, Hamburg, Iowa.
Tomb, Mrs. J. M., Newton Centre.
Tougas, Mrs. Walter L., Waban.
Tourtelotte, Mrs. Holbrook, Marlboro.
Towne, Mr. F. B., Holyoke.
Towne, Mrs. George W., Salem.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Tracy, Mrs. Patrick, Dedham.
Trott, Mr. Emery J., Lawrence.
Trudo, Mr. Eugene F., Weston.
Trull, Mrs. G. Thorndike, Lowell.
Tunstall, Mrs. Wm. B., Worcester.
Turgiss, Mrs. Charles, Woburn.
Twitchell, Jr., Mr. Lawson B., South
Tyler, Mrs. John M., Amherst.
Ulman, Miss Harriet E., Hingham.
Ursebel, Mrs. George, Toledo, Ohio.
Usher, Mrs. Samuel, Cambridge.
Van Cleve, Miss Kate, Brookline.
Van Melle, Mr. Peter J., Poughkeepsie,
Vaughan, Mrs. Annie, Melrose.
Vickery, Mrs. Marjorie T., Marshfield.
Vient, Mr. L. P., Cliftondale.
Vogel, Mr. A. R., Evanston, 111.
Vose, Miss Elizabeth E., Milton.
Vose, Mrs. Robert C, Brookline.
Wait, Miss M. Hannah, Cambridge.
Wakefield, Mr. Julius R., Dedham.
Wakeman, Mr. Albert R., Barton, Vt.
Wales, Mr. Quincy W., West Newton.
Wales, Mr. William I., West Newton.
Walker, Miss Gladys L., Needham.
Walkins, Miss Florence E., Boston.
Wallis, Miss Freda, Beverly.
Walsh, Rev. Henry A., Dedham.
Ward, Mr. Isaac, Tyngsboro.
Ware, Mr. Samuel, Dorchester.
Warren, Mrs. Joseph, Milton.
Warren, Miss Margaret, Dedham.
Warren, Mr. Philip L., Waban.
Watson, Mrs. Helen May, Chicago, 111.
Watt, Miss Barbara H., Wellesley Hills.
Watts, Mrs. Lawrence, Newton Centre.
Webb, Mrs. William J., Brockton.
Weeks, Miss Janet, Somerville.
Weeks, Miss N. M., Wollaston.
Weis, Mr. Daniel W., Roxbury.
Welch, Mrs. Charles W., Stoughton.
Welcome, Mrs. Arline, Milton.
Weld, Mrs. C. Minot, Boston.
Wellman, Miss Ruth W., Wellesley.
Wellman, Mrs. Sargent H., Topsfield.
Wendell, Mrs. Barrett, Boston.
Wesson, Mrs. Frank L., Cambridge.
West, Mrs. Eleanor M., Newton Centre.
Westman, Mr. Charles L., Lincoln.
Westman, Mr. Ronald E., Abington.
Wetterlow, Mr. Eric, Manchester.
*Wheatland, Mrs. Richard, Boston.
Whedon, Mrs. W. T., Norwood.
Wheeler, Mrs. Charles D., Worcester.
Whidden, Mrs. Bradlee, Wellesley Hills.
Whidden, Stephen H., Boston.
White, Mrs. C. J., Boston.
White, Mrs. Frank S., Hyde Park.
White, Mrs. Franklin Warren, Boston.
White, Mrs. Herbert H., Brookline.
White, Dr. Leon E., Chestnut Hill.
White, Miss Rachel B., Winchendon.
Whitecross, Mr. Frank F., Jamaica
Whitin, .Mrs. James, Whitinsville.
Whiting, Mrs. Walter R., Hingham.
Whiting, Mr. Winfred H., Worcester.
Whitney, Mrs. Benjamin, Wayland.
Whitney, Miss Elsie E., Maiden.
Whitney, Mrs. Katherine, Lexington.
Whittemore, Mr. W. P., West Roxbury.
Whittier, Miss Helen E., Hyde Park.
Whittington, Mrs. H. Parker, Brookline.
Wilbur, Miss Sara, Bridgewater.
Willard, Dr. Sumner P., Marlboro.
Willett, Mr. W. W., Swampscott.
Williams, Mrs. F. P., Brookline.
Williams, Mrs. Franklin D., Taunton.
Williams, Mrs. Jane C, Holliston.
Williams, Miss Mary E., Boston.
Williams, Dr. Maude G., Northampton.
* Williams, Mrs. Ralph B., Dover.
Williams, Mrs. Robert S., Belmont.
Williamson, Mr. Harry, Dorchester.
Willoughby, Miss Edith M., Beverly.
Wilson, Mrs. A. Chalmers, Osterville.
Wilson, Mr. J. E., Newport, R. I.
Wing, Mrs. William E., South Portland,
Winn, Miss Amy J., Arlington.
Winslow, Mr. E. J., Auburndale.
Winsor, Mrs. Bancroft, New Bedford.
Winters, Mr. Ralph, Meadville, Penn.
Winterton, Miss Cora E., Cambridge.
Witham, Miss Rose Adelaide, Sudbury.
Withers, Mrs. Clark, New London, Ct.
Withington, Mrs. Charles Francis, Bos-
Withrow, Mr. Ira F., Medford.
Wolff, Miss Fernanda C, Boston.
Wonson, Mrs. Waverly T., West Rox-
Wood, Mr. Albert B., Lunenberg.
Wood, Mrs. Louise A., Portland, Maine.
Wood, Mrs. Orvin G., Chestnut Hill.
Wood, Mrs. William B., Milton.
Woodcock, Mrs. F. W., Newtonville.
Woods, Mr. Edward F., Boston.
Woods, Mrs. Frederick S., Newton
Woodside, Mr. John E., Arlington.
Woodworth, Mrs. Amy F., Lowell.
Worthen, Mrs. Dorothy B., Winchester.
Wright, Mrs. John P., Arlington.
Wright, Mr. Karl B., Belmont.
Wright, Mr. Walter P., Brookline.
Wrisley, Miss Margaret, Belmont.
Wyllie, Mr. William J., Quincy.
Yeager, Mrs. Frances P., Boston.
Yeaton, Mrs. H. W., Saco, Maine.
Young, Miss Emily W., Newton Centre.
NEW MEMBERS IN 1927 135
Young 1 , Mrs. Philip, Boston. Ziegler, Mrs. A. M., Newtonville.
Young, Miss Rhoda L., Newton Centre. •
Zeininger, Mr. J. K., Southboro. *Life Members.
Form of Bequest
I give and bequeath to the Massachusetts Horticul
tural Society the sum of
to be used as the Trustees may direct for the promo
tion of horticulture.